Front Matter
  • 1 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund
  • | 2 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund
  • | 3 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund

Title Page

FINTECH NOTE

Behind the Scenes of Central Bank Digital Currency

Emerging Trends, Insights, and Policy Lessons

Prepared by Gabriel Soderberg in collaboration with Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, Natasha Che, Sonja Davidovic, John Kiff, Inutu Lukonga, Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga

February 2022

Copyright Page

©2022 International Monetary Fund

Behind the Scenes of Central Bank Digital Currency Emerging Trends, Insights, and Policy Lessons

Note 2022/004

Prepared by Gabriel Soderberg

In collaboration with Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, Natasha Che, Sonja Davidovic, John Kiff, Inutu Lukonga, Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga

Names: Soderberg, Gabriel, author. | Bechara, Marianne, author. | Bossu, Wouter, author. | Che, Natasha Xingyuan, author. | Davidovic, Sonja, author. | Kiff, John, author. | Lukonga, Inutu, author. | Mancini-Griffoli, Tommaso, author. | Sun, Tao, 1970-, author. | Yoshinaga, Akihiro, author. | International Monetary Fund, publisher.

Title: Central bank digital currency behind the scenes : emerging trends, insights, and policy lessons / prepared by Gabriel Soderberg in collaboration with Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, Natasha Che, Sonja Davidovic, John Kiff, Inutu Lukonga, Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga.

Other titles: Emerging trends, insights, and policy lessons. | Fintech Notes (International Monetary Fund).

Description: Washington, DC : International Monetary Fund, 2022. | February 2022. | Note 2022/004. | Fintech notes. | Includes bibliographical references.

Identifiers: ISBN 9798400201219 (paper)

ISBN 9798400200373 (ePub)

ISBN 9798400200403 (WebPDF)

Subjects: LCSH: Digital currency. | Banks and banking, Central. | International finance.

Classification: LCC HG1710.S63 2022

The paper was written under the supervision of Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli, and drew on work by Natasha Che, Sonja Davidovic, John Kiff, Inutu Lukonga, and Tao Sun. Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, and Akihiro Yoshinaga researched and wrote the section on legal foundations of CBDC. While the authors are responsible for any mistakes, the paper greatly benefitted from interactions with central bank representatives: Cleopatra Davis and Kimwood Mott (Central Bank of the Bahamas), Scott Henry, Francisco Rivadeneyra, and Dinesh Shah (Bank of Canada), Changchun Mu, Naji Liu, and Yuan Lyu (People’s Bank of China), Sharmyn Powell (Eastern Caribbean Central Bank), Gabriela Guibourg, Johan Schmalholz, and Mithra Sundberg (Sveriges Riksbank), and Adolfo Sarmiento (Banco Central de Uruguay). The paper benefitted from comments by IMF staff. Carlos Padilla-Chavez provided outstanding research assistance, and Erica Sandoval provided precious editorial assistance.

Fintech Notes offer practical advice from IMF staff members to policymakers on important issues. The views expressed in Fintech Notes are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.

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Contents

  • 1. Introduction

  • 2. Policy Goals of CBDC Projects

    • A. Financial Inclusion

    • B. Access to Payments

    • C. Making Payments More Efficient

    • D. Ensuring Resilience of Payments

    • E. Reducing Illicit Use of Money

    • F. Monetary Sovereignty

    • G. Competition

    • H. Summary of Policy Goals

  • 3. Operating Model

    • A. Central Bank and Private Sector Functions

    • B. The Business Model of CBDC

  • 4. Design Features

    • A. Restrictions Aimed at Ensuring Financial Stability

    • B. Anonymity

    • C. Off-Line Capacity

    • D. Cross-Border Payments Using CBDC

    • E. Summary of Design Features

  • 5. Technology

    • A. Technology Suppliers

    • B. Distributed Ledger Technology vs Centralized Technology

    • C. Summary of Technology Choices

  • 6. Legal Foundations for CBDC

  • 7. Project Implementation

    • A. Organizational Changes at the Central Bank

    • B. Internal Staffing

    • C. Organization and Design of Pilots

    • D. Stakeholders and Public CBDC Communication

    • E. Major Challenges and Hindrances

    • F. Key Insights

  • 8. Conclusions

  • References

Behind the Scenes of Central Bank Digital Currency: Emerging Trends, Insights, and Policy Lessons
Author: Gabriel Soderberg, Ms. Marianne Bechara, Wouter Bossu, Ms. Natasha X Che, Sonja Davidovic, Mr. John Kiff, Ms. Inutu Lukonga, Mr. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga