In October 2006, the Chadian government prepared a second National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS2). NPRS2 analyzed poverty in Chad, reviewed the results of the first NPRS and progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), defined the strategic pillars of the second strategy, examined two key scenarios for poverty reduction and growth, and described the institutional framework for implementation of the strategy. The government considers NPRS2 as the main instrument for achieving the MDGs in Chad, and therefore the preferred framework for socioeconomic development.

Abstract

In October 2006, the Chadian government prepared a second National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS2). NPRS2 analyzed poverty in Chad, reviewed the results of the first NPRS and progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), defined the strategic pillars of the second strategy, examined two key scenarios for poverty reduction and growth, and described the institutional framework for implementation of the strategy. The government considers NPRS2 as the main instrument for achieving the MDGs in Chad, and therefore the preferred framework for socioeconomic development.

INTRODUCTION

VISION AND PRIORITIES

The government’s strategic vision is to promote economic growth that will reduce poverty and vulnerability in the medium and long term. The need to respond urgently to the aspirations of the Chadian people in the areas of health and longevity, education, well-being, and freedom requires meeting three major challenges. The ecological challenge consists of protecting the environment and natural resources – land, water, animals, and pastures – on which Chad is pinning its diversification hopes. There is also a political challenge, which involves resolving and preventing conflicts and consolidating peace and social harmony in order to promote Chad’s economic and social development. Finally, the economic challenge requires defining and implementing a consistent set of sectoral policies to accelerate growth, strengthen the social sector, and reduce poverty in response to the expectations of the people and the Millennium Development Goals.

The opportunities presented by the petroleum era complicate the situation by creating a development challenge: the public sector, private sector, civil society, and the people must work together to halve poverty by 2015 from the 2003 level of 55 percent and to consolidate the foundations of an economy that is sufficiently diversified to handle the post-petroleum era shock. As a target for 2011, the challenge around which all of the government’s efforts will converge is to achieve an average non-oil GDP growth rate of 5.5 percent in order to reduce the proportion of Chadians living below the poverty line from 55 percent (base 2003) to 40.3 percent.

The National Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (NPRS2) is considered the main instrument for implementing the MDGs in Chad. Based on the lessons learned from the implementation of previous public policies, the second-generation NPRS gives top priority to agriculture and promotion of the rural sector, where 87 percent of the poor live. Increasing food production and farmers’ incomes is essential for reducing poverty. Increasing the productivity of the agricultural sector is closely linked with investments to increase access to transportation, information, and communications, safe drinking water and sanitation, modern forms of energy, and better use of surface water. All this will be accomplished in a rational framework for the preservation of nature and ecosystems.

In the medium and long term, it is essential to develop human resources in order to enable the population to participate in and benefit fully from economic growth. Over time, this involves ensuring that all Chadian children have access to high-quality, universal primary education, eliminating inequality of access to education, health, nutrition and nonagricultural employment, and establishing the social safety nets that are essential to improving the living conditions of homeless children, the disabled, women, the elderly, and other marginalized groups.

Finally, the need to protect the interests of future generations requires integrating environmental protection in all sectoral policies, by promoting direct investment to reduce environmental degradation and improve ecological surveillance.

OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONALITIES OF THE PAP

As explained in the main paper, the sectoral priorities and objectives of the NPRS2 have changed little since the first version of the strategy (NPRS1). The most important way in which the NPRS2 is different is the emphasis that the authorities place on implementation of the strategy to ensure effective execution of its programs and attainment of the targets and objectives.

The main weakness of the NPRS1 did not lie in the substance and relevance of its policies and programs, but rather in their programming and execution. The PAP is designed to correct these weaknesses. It was developed with the effective participation of the sectoral ministries under the coordination of the central ministries (Economy and Planning, and Finance). It translates the strategic approaches and policies of the NPRS2 into four-year sectoral and ministerial action plans, with specific targets and objectives spread out over the four years of the program, which are budgeted (program budgets), executed, and revised annually.

The PAP is above all a multisectoral programming instrument. It combines the priority programs of all sectors/ministries, ensures that they are anchored in the strategic thrusts of the NPRS2, and breaks them down into projects and activities for achievement of specific targets over time. Discussions are organized around the preparation of the PAP in order to review the programs and projects and align them, not only within each ministry, but also and in particular within each sector and with the other sectors (for example, the consistency of rural development programs with infrastructure and human resources development programs in rural areas; or the consistency and complementarity of rural and urban strategies with programs for the processing of agricultural products – the agriculture/industry/services link – or population movements between regions – links between urban drift and urban policies, etc.). The PAP is therefore the key instrument for programming and coordinating actions, in terms of both the substance of programs and the sequencing of implementation timetables. It makes it possible to minimize friction, maximize complementarities and synergies, and thus ensure the convergence of resources on the targets laid out in the strategies and therefore the effectiveness of all of the government’s actions in the context of the NPRS.

The PAP is also an instrument for the “strategic framing” of the MTEF and thus an aid in program budgeting (preparation of program budgets). The sectoral modules of the PAP provide detailed definitions of the activities making up the programs and projects, which are used to cost all operations relating to these projects and thus to prepare the program budgets (sectoral MTEFs). It thus provides a bridge between the strategy and the budget framework through the MTEF. As part of this important budget function, the PAP contributes to a better alignment of the budget to the strategy priorities (strategic framing of the budget).

Finally, the PAP is an instrument that helps to monitor execution of the NPRS programs. Each ministry attaches a matrix of actions to its PAP, including a list of targets, indicators of deployed resources, achieved and anticipated results, and, where possible, the expected impacts. The NPRS monitoring mechanism stipulates that each ministry must produce an annual execution report for its PAP, including an analysis of programs, actual results, budgets, and, based on that analysis, proposed timely revisions of programs. In this sense, the PAP monitoring report constitutes the centerpiece of the mechanism for monitoring implementation of the NPRS2. The NPRS2 execution report is simply a synthesis of the sectoral PAP execution reports.

Use of the PAP makes the sectoral ministries more accountable for the definition, budgeting, execution, monitoring, and periodic revision of the NPRS programs. As indicated for the monitoring mechanism, the full review of the NPRS, including the reviews of sectoral policies and strategies and the impact analyses, does not take place until the end of the four-year implementation period, in preparation for a new version of the NPRS.

The PAP plan is similar to the NPRS2 plan. The objectives, programs, and projects are grouped under the NPRS pillars, particularly by programs relating to: (i) political, security, administrative, and judicial governance; (ii) diversification of the economy and its implications for the productive sectors, from agriculture to services; (iii) infrastructure; (iv) the rural sector; and (v) the social sectors.

THE STRATEGIC PILLARS OF THE NPRS2

No matter how relevant the action plans that are prepared, their successful implementation depends closely on good governance. Consequently, the promotion of good management of public resources and affairs is listed first among the following priority intervention pillars:

  • 1. Promoting good governance to strengthen social cohesion and the effectiveness of policies.

  • 2. Creating an environment favorable to robust and diversified economic growth.

  • 3. Enhancing the growth potential of the rural sector.

  • 4. Developing infrastructure as a driver of growth.

  • 5. Promoting human resources.

Under the supervision of the Steering Committee, these pillars have been broken down into priority action programs prepared in close cooperation with the managers of the priority poverty reduction sectors, the Directorate General of the Budget, and senior officials of the Ministry of Economy and Planning, with contributions from civil society organizations.

Pillar I : Promoting good governance to strengthen social cohesion and the effectiveness of policies

The strategy gives priority to the following actions: (i) consolidating political governance; (ii) accelerating the reform of the justice system; (iii) improving administrative governance; and (iv) and strengthening economic governance.

I.1 Consolidating political governance

Three major programs are planned to consolidate political governance: (i) strengthening of democratic institutions; (ii) conflict resolution; and (iii) strengthening of defense and security forces.

Program 1.1.1: Strengthening of democratic institutions

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve and consolidate the democratic process.

  • Strengthen the partnership between the State, civil society, and the private sector.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the political agreements aimed at achieving stability and peace.

  • Electoral census.

  • Implementation of a Capacity Building Fund for partnerships between participants from the public and private sectors and civil society.

Expected results

  • Enhanced rule of law.

  • Increased social and public accountability.

  • Political climate favorable to peace and security.

Program 1.1.2: Conflict resolution

Priorities and objectives

  • Enhance the social climate and promote the peaceful coexistence of the various communities.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development and implementation of an institutional support program in the Cultural, Social, and Economic Council.

  • Revision of the Law on Transhumance.

  • Adoption of the Law Strengthening the Capacities of the National Ombudsperson.

  • Signing of a partnership agreement between the Ombudsperson and the Chadian Red Cross to promote humanitarian values.

Expected results

  • More peaceful relations between farmers and livestock herders.

  • Decline in the frequency of inter- and intra-community and/or religious conflicts.

  • At least 100,000 displaced persons cared for.

Program 1.1.3: Strengthening of defense and security forces

Priorities and objectives

  • Reform the Chadian National Army.

  • Improve the capacity of the police and gendarmerie to intervene.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development and implementation of a program in support of the reform of the Chadian National Army (PARANT).

  • Development and implementation of a plan to enhance the capacities of the gendarmerie.

  • Development and implementation of a program in support of capacity building for the police force.

  • Stepping-up of the National Demining Program.

Expected results

  • Emergence of an army of professions working in the service of development.

  • Prevention, intervention, and support capacities enhanced.

  • Larger area of the country made secure.

I. 2 Improving administrative governance

Improving administrative governance involves: (i) administrative reform; (ii) improvement of the strategic development framework; (iii) enhancement of the social dialogue; (iv) improvement of social welfare systems; (v) strengthening of the labor market management information system; and (vi) decentralization.

Program 1.2.1: Administrative reform

Priorities and objectives

  • Improving the functioning of the government.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the recommendations of the audits of nine ministries.

  • Implementation of the recommendations of the organizational and institutional audits of 14 other ministries.

  • Implementation of the specifications for an information system for five pilot ministries.

Expected results

  • At least 50 percent of job profiles enhanced in the nine audited ministries.

  • Capacities of the 14 other ministries strengthened.

  • Information system for the five ministries validated and implemented.

Program 1.2.2: Improvement of the strategic development framework

Priorities and objectives

  • Enhance the capacities of employment offices.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Training of 30 job counselors.

  • Recruitment of 20 economists, statisticians, and planners.

  • Construction and equipment of a building housing the employment offices.

Expected results

  • A National Employment Strategy adopted and implemented starting in 2009.

Program 1.2.3: Enhancement of the social dialogue

Priorities and objectives

  • Enhance the capacity for social dialogue.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Creation of the National Social Dialogue Committee.

  • Training of participants.

Expected results

  • Instrument creating the National Social Dialogue Committee signed and published.

  • Key participants in the social dialogue trained.

Program 1.2.4: Improvement of social welfare systems

Parties and objectives

  • Improve the socioprofessional protection of workers.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Restructuring of the CNPS.

  • Adaptation of CNPS products.

  • Design of new operational social welfare mechanisms.

Expected results

  • Strategic audit completed.

  • New CNPS services proposed.

  • Two (2) new social welfare mechanisms created and operational.

Program 1.2.5: Labor market management and information system

Priorities and objectives

  • Contribute to a better knowledge of the labor market.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development of a logical framework.

  • Establishment of an employment database.

  • Personnel training.

Expected results

  • Information system established and operational.

Program 1.2.6: Decentralization

Priorities and objectives

  • Complete the decentralization process.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the Decentralization Action Plan.

Expected results

  • Decentralized authorities established and functional.

I. 3 Accelerating the reform of the justice system

Following the States General of Justice held in June 2003, the government adopted a Justice System Reform Program in February 2005. The first priority of the reform is to train personnel and improve access through the establishment of a community-based system. Implementation of the program involves: (i) enhancement of field services; (ii) improvement of the judicial administration; (iii) legislative and judicial reforms; (iv) improvement of judicial affairs and pardons; (v) reform of the correctional system; and (vi) legal and judicial protection of children.

Program 1.3.1: Enhancement of field services

Priorities and objectives

  • Deal with cases expeditiously.

  • Bring those seeking justice closer to the justice system.

  • Monitor the execution of court decisions.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Enhance staff skills (initial and ongoing training for 100 judges and 100 clerks, as well as support staff).

  • Construction and equipment of 3 appeals courts (Moundou, Abéché, and Koumra) and 18 tribunals.

Expected results

  • Capacity of the Public Prosecutor to initiate proceedings, support charges, apply for sanctions, and monitor the execution of court decisions enhanced.

Program 1.3.2: Improvement of the judicial administration

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the management and productivity of functional entities by means of coordination, internal controls, and administrative, financial, and physical management of units.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of the Ministry of Justice.

  • Recruitment and training of 10 administration and management officials.

Expected results

  • Effective coordination and monitoring of units’ activities.

  • Optimal management of human and physical resources.

Program 1.3.3: Legislative and judicial reform

Priorities and objectives

  • Adapt the laws and regulations and the judicial apparatus to the current context and developments (revamping of laws and regulations governing justice system activities).

  • Prepare appropriate laws and regulations to fill gaps in certain areas.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation and revision of 13 laws and regulations (particularly the Civil Code, Family Code, Criminal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure, Code of Civil Procedure, Law Governing the Organization and Functioning of Criminal Records, Law Establishing Regulations for Judges, Law Establishing Sanctions Applicable to Offenses Included in the OHADA Uniform Acts, Decree Setting the Rates for Notarized Documents, Decree Setting the Rates for Writs, Law on Legal Aid, alignment of national laws with ratified international conventions, and Law Establishing the Procedure Applicable to Administrative Courts).

Expected results

  • Judicial and institutional environment improved.

  • Business climate more secure and more attractive to foreign investment.

Program 1.3.4: Improvement of judicial affairs and pardons

Priorities and objectives

  • Guarantee the respect of the rights of others recognized in positive laws by means of parole, rehabilitation, pardons, and amnesties.

  • Define a criminal policy in line with reality on the basis of statistics for the various jurisdictions.

  • Ensure that justice is properly administered.

  • Strengthen the management of government seals and coats of arms.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development of the judicial districting map.

Expected results

  • Up-to-date information system on the activities of the various courts established, showing their capacity or lack thereof to handle the volume of cases before them within reasonable time frames, the technical quality of their output, and consequently a realistic approach to the ongoing training requirements of judges and a coherent estimate of real staffing needs (judges and clerks).

Program 1.3.5: Reform of the correctional system

Priorities and objectives

  • Adapt the Chadian correctional system to international standards subject to the conventions and principles set out in the Constitution.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Regional consolidation of correctional facilities (from 53 to 33).

  • Program of inmate production and rehabilitation activities.

Expected results

  • Transition from harsh incarceration to a form of re-education, apprenticeship, and vocational training.

  • Correctional system improved and in the service of social development.

Program 1.3.6: Legal and judicial protection of children

Priorities and objectives

  • Ensure that there are legal and judicial protections for children by establishing structures that comply with standards.

  • Align national laws and regulations with international laws protecting the rights of children and disseminate these instruments widely.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of an effective coordination system between the various participants involved in protecting children.

  • Listing and compilation of international and national laws relating to children and purchase of manuals on the legal protection of children.

  • Preparation of draft laws on educational assistance and revision of certain provisions of the Criminal Code.

  • Development of a policy on the protection of minors in correctional facilities.

Expected results

  • Institutional framework for the legal and judicial protection of children established.

I. 4 Strengthening economic governance

Enhancing economic governments requires: (i) implementing the NPRS2 and (ii) combating corruption and promoting transparency.

Program 1.4.1: Implementing the National Poverty Reduction Strategy

Priorities and objectives

  • Substantially reduce poverty and improve the socioeconomic conditions of the people accordingly.

  • Make progress toward attainment of the MDGs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Enhancement of national capacities for the implementation and monitoring of the NPRS with a view to attainment of the MDGs.

  • Compilation of statistics.

  • General Census of Population and Housing (GCPH).

  • Surveys (ECOSIT3, EDST 3, etc.).

Expected results

  • Ability of ministries in the priority sectors to implement and monitor the NPRS2 enhanced.

  • Reliable monitoring and assessment indicators for the NPRS2 and MDGs available.

  • NPRS and MDG monitoring reports regularly produced.

  • Instruments for defining program budgets (macroeconomic framework, medium-term expenditure framework, program budgets) widely used in the priority sectors.

Program 1.4.2: Combating corruption and promoting transparency

Priorities and objectives

  • Introduce strategic instruments to strengthen the moral integrity of society and institutions.

  • Combat extortion, influence peddling, abuse of power and public goods, and misappropriation of public funds.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • National survey on the perception of corruption.

  • Development of a national anti-corruption strategy.

  • Creation of ethics committees in the public and parapublic sectors.

  • Drafting of laws on illicit enrichment and implementing laws and regulations on the disclosure of assets

  • Drafting of the Code of Good Conduct.

  • Drafting and adoption of a financial control and audit procedures manual

Expected results

  • Transparency in public procurement resulting in lower capital costs.

  • Less corruption in Chad.

Pillar II. Creating an environment promoting robust and diversified economic growth

In anticipation of the end of the oil investment and production stabilization period, which will result in a slowdown in economic growth, it is important to enhance the competitiveness of the Chadian economy and ensure its integration into the regional and global markets. Therefore, to support strong, sustainable growth that can reduce property, the strategy establishes four objectives: (i) stabilize and enhance the macroeconomic framework; (ii) revitalize the private sector; (iii) promote employment in urban and rural areas; [(iv) implement the Fiscal Modernization Plan (PAMFIP);] and (v) promote regional integration.

Program 2.1: Macroeconomic framework

Priorities and objectives

  • Enhance the instruments for managing and monitoring macroeconomic policies.

  • Make a common macroeconomic forecasting tool available to INSEE, the Directorate of Research and Forecasting, and the Poverty Observatory.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Retooling of the methodology for preparing the national accounts using the ERETES (Supply-Use Balance/Input-Output Table) module.

  • Retooling of the macroeconomic forecasting methodology to make it more flexible and less complex.

Expected results

  • Module based on the ERETES method available for preparing the national accounts.

  • Flexible macroeconomic forecasting module available and widely used.

Program 2.2: Revitalization of the private sector

Priorities and objectives

  • Promote a dynamic private sector as an engine for the creation of wealth and jobs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Establishment of a framework for ongoing dialogue between the government and the private sector.

  • Reform of the tax and customs systems.

  • Application of the Investment Charter.

  • Creation of the National Investment and Export Promotion Agency.

  • Establishment of a functioning one-stop shop.

Expected results

  • Business environment improved.

  • Many jobs created.

  • Lower youth unemployment rate.

Program 2.3: Promotion of employment in urban and rural areas

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen initiatives for the creation of micro and small enterprises

  • Incorporate labor-intensive techniques into large investment projects.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Provision of business incubation centers to promoters.

  • Facilitation of access to financing and support for entry into the formal sector.

  • Support for existing oversight and assistance structures.

  • Drafting and adoption of laws and regulations introducing labor-intensive techniques.

Expected results

  • Large numbers of jobs offered to young people in rural and urban areas.

  • Decline in the unemployment rate and urban drift

Program 2.4: Fiscal Modernization Plan (PAMFIP)

Priorities and objectives

  • Help the government reform its management of public finances to ensure greater transparency and effectiveness.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation of the MTEF and program budgets and allocation of expenditure based largely on the priorities of the NPRS2.

  • Respect of the timetable for the preparation and approval of budgets.

  • Enhancement of the capacities of the Ministry of Finance and the Administrative and Financial Affairs Directorates in the technical ministries and improvement of the computerized financial management system.

  • Strengthening of the audit and control institutions, particularly the Audit Office and the Oil Revenue Oversight and Control Board.

  • Consolidation of the new institutional framework for public procurement.

Expected results

  • Budget structures improved and links with the NPRS strengthened.

  • At least 85 percent of priority program budgets executed on a cash basis.

  • Almost permanent monitoring of public spending, the cash flow position, and the financial performance of the government (improved table covering the four stages).

  • At least 10 sectoral MTEFs based on annual expenditure reviews.

Program 2.5: Regional integration

Priorities and objectives

  • Promote regional cooperation.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Streamlining of the tariff structure in Chad and in the CAEMC.

  • Establishment of a mechanism for reduced taxation of inputs used by export companies.

  • Updating of the various codes regulating enterprises, particularly the Commercial Code, the Mining Code, the Labor Code, the Telecommunications Code, the Energy Code, etc., by integrating them into CAEMC procedures.

Expected results

  • Better economic and political integration provided.

Pillar III. Enhancing the growth potential of the rural sector

Chad adopted a National Rural Development Strategy during the Sectoral Consultation held in June 1999

Implementation of this strategy through a consistent cross-cutting multisectoral program bringing together all rural development actions in Chad resulted in the identification of a Rural Development Intervention Plan (PIDR), the purpose of which is to reduce poverty by promoting sustainable development in rural areas and improving access to basic services and economic opportunities at the local level

III. 1 Agriculture

The priority operational intervention strategies for the sector are set out in the last two policy framework papers, i.e., the Master Plan for Agriculture (SDA) and the National Food Security Program (PNSA). These strategies involve: (i) the control of water resources; (ii) the intensification and diversification of production; (iii) food security; (iv) agricultural extension services; (v) agricultural research; (vi) rural training; (vii) support for the cotton subsector; (viii) improvement of the socioeconomic environment of the rural poor; (ix) administration of the subsector; and (x) the information system

Program 3.1.1 Control of water resources

Priorities and objectives

  • Make better use of surface water by carrying out hydroagricultural projects that are less costly and easily maintained by farmers.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Rehabilitation and development of the irrigated land along the Chari and Logone rivers and at other appropriate sites.

  • Studies on and construction of 10 water storage dams and/or man-made ponds each year.

Expected results

  • 3,000 ha each year, including 1,000 ha totally controlled and 2,000 ha partially controlled.

  • 10 water storage dams and/or man-made ponds constructed each year.

Program 3.1.2: Intensification and diversification of production

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve agricultural productivity.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Promotion of intensive farming systems.

  • Establishment of mechanisms for the production of high-quality selected seeds.

  • Provision of better quality [equipment and supplies], particularly plows and inputs (fertilizers and seeds), to farmers.

  • Purchase of 16,000 plows each year.

  • Implementation of the agricultural production diversification plan.

Expected results

  • Yields for major crops increased.

  • Rate of equipment of farms increased by 2 percent per year.

  • Agricultural production diversified.

Program 3.1.3: Food security

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen the early warning and monitoring system.

measures and actions

  • Implementation of the PNSA.

Expected results

  • Buffer stock of 35,000 tons of grains available.

  • Monitoring system enhanced and operational.

Program 3.1.4: Agricultural extension services

Priorities and objectives

  • Provide farmers with technical advice and agricultural equipment and inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and improved seed).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Recruitment of 800 village training officials for the ONDR.

  • Equipment of 39 ONDR sectors.

Expected results

  • Ratio of one training official for 10 to 15 villages.

  • 20 to 25 percent of farmers trained and organized and mastering production techniques.

Program 3.1.5: Agricultural research

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the agricultural research system.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development of adequate and appropriate lower-cost production techniques and technologies, making it possible to a maximize the quantity and quality of agricultural output.

  • Evaluation of the National Medium-Term Research Program (PMTRA).

  • Production of breeder, pre-foundation, and foundation seed, cover crops to improve soil fertility, improved fruit plants and cuttings and/or improved root plant tubers to protect the genetic nucleus.

  • Rehabilitation of farms.

Expected results

  • PMTRA evaluated.

  • Average of 152,000 tons of seed (pre-foundation and foundation) improved for all varieties of grain products.

Program 3.1.6: Rural training

Priorities and objectives

  • Enhance the capacity of the Directorate of Agricultural Research [and] Vocational Training to intervene through the rehabilitation and equipment of central and devolved units.

  • Provide training for participants in the subsector and promote the structuring of the rural sector.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Diagnostic study of farmers organizations.

  • Renovation of premises.

  • Equipment of central and devolved units of the Training Directorate.

  • Rehabilitation and creation of Rural Promotion and Training Centers (CFPR) in the Sahelian zone.

  • Reorganization and resumption of training at the Agricultural Technicians School (ETA), with special emphasis on the training of women and restructuring of the rural sector.

Expected results

  • ETA in Ba-Illi upgraded and operational.

  • At least 3 CFPRs constructed and 3 others rehabilitated.

Program 3.1.7: Support for the cotton subsector

Priorities and objectives

  • With the participation of growers and their organizations, continue the privatization process currently under way by expediting completion of the actions included in the roadmap.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the roadmap for the cotton subsector.

Expected results

  • Cotton production and field and ginning yields increased.

  • Production cost reduced and financial position of Cotontchad improved.

  • Incomes of cotton growers increased and local coordination committees (CCL) better organized and more representative.

  • Cotontchad privatized on a consensual basis in the interests of growers.

Program 3.1.8: Improvement of the socioeconomic environment of the rural poor

This program brings together all of the actions financed with government counterpart funds for the completion of the various externally financed projects.

Priorities and objectives

  • Step up the participation of rural communities in the development process by improving their access to basic services and economic opportunities at the local level.

  • Support rural organizations in the sustainable management of natural resources and restore productive capital.

  • Promote microcredit and improve the provision of basic services.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the Local Development Program (PRODEL).

  • Implementation of the Sectoral Capacity Building Program (PROSE).

  • Support for the monitoring mechanism of the National Rural Development Strategy defined by the sectoral consultation on rural development held in June 1999.

Expected results

  • Production zones opened up.

  • Better communications provided.

  • Access to social services improved.

  • Health centers constructed.

  • Education in rural areas improved.

  • Soil erosion reduced.

  • Clearing/deforestation activities reduced.

Program 3.1.9: Administration of the subsector

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve design capacities (management, planning, and coordination capacities of central and devolved entities).

  • Enhance the HR, infrastructure, and equipment capacity of units.

  • Produce adequate and reliable statistics.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Support for central and devolved units (design, development, information, control, and monitoring of agricultural policies).

  • Construction of the ministry headquarters.

  • Construction and equipment of the headquarters of 10 regional delegations.

Expected results

  • Subsector planning, management, and guidance capacities enhanced.

Program 3.1.10: Information system

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the quality of agricultural statistics.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Re-updating of the sampling frame for the reliable estimation of output.

  • Revitalization of the agricultural survey network.

  • Improvement of the capacity of technicians to analyze and interpret data.

Expected results

  • Reliable statistical data published on a timely basis.

  • Agricultural census completed.

  • Monitoring systems operational.

III. 2 Livestock

In the area of livestock, the chosen strategy aims essentially at increasing animal production on a sustainable basis and increasing the incomes of livestock herders and other participants in the sector. Two programs support this strategy: (i) development of livestock systems and (ii) capacity building for livestock support and professional services.

Program 3.2.1: Development of livestock systems

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the development and management of pasture resources.

  • Develop growth subsectors.

  • Improve animal health.

  • Enhance veterinary and zootechnical research.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of 90 pasture wells and 45 pumping stations.

  • Development of 15 water retention ponds.

  • Establishment of an early warning system to combat epizootic diseases, particularly avian flu.

  • Development of growth subsectors.

  • Veterinary and zootechnical research.

Expected results

  • Pastureland not used owing to a lack of water sources developed.

  • Imports of poultry products reduced.

  • Imports of dairy products reduced.

  • Key results of zootechnical research available and disseminated for better use.

  • High-quality veterinary products and drugs available throughout the country and affordable.

  • Rate of coverage improved.

Program 3.2.2: Capacity building for livestock support and professional services

Priorities and objectives

  • Support professional organizations and services.

  • Improve the capacities of entities responsible for collecting and disseminating data.

  • Improve the capacities of nonstate actors.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Recruitment of 405 livestock technicians.

  • Implementation of the training plan for 60 technical supervisors.

  • Implementation of the research and extension program.

  • Support for the information system.

Expected results

  • Better data on cattle herd sizes.

  • Livestock recognized as a genuine engine of growth (increased share in GDP).

III. 3 Fisheries and water resources

Four programs underlie the strategy for fisheries and water resources: (i) development of fisheries; (ii) promotion of fish farming; (iii) water resources and meteorology; and (iv) management of the subsector.

Program 3.3.1: Development of fisheries

The aim of the program is to implement the Fisheries Development Project by building institutional capacities, developing resources and managing them sustainably, and supporting the marketing and management of the project.

Priorities and objectives

  • Protect and preserve water ecosystems through participatory management and oversight of resources.

  • Establish partnership relationships with producer organizations.

  • Train and equip supervisors.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Fisheries Development Project (PRODEPECHE)

Expected results

  • 5,700 operators trained, 60 percent of whom are women.

  • 200 operators associations in the subsector created or revitalized.

  • 20 supervisors, 60 technicians and 50 local government officials trained.

  • 4,000 subsector operators with access to microcredit.

  • Fisheries and Fish Farming Directorate equipped and provided with infrastructure and motor vehicles.

  • 15 integrated development plans prepared and validated.

  • 100 village oversight committees established and equipped to monitor, manage, and control fisheries operations.

Program 3.3.2: Promotion of fish farming

Rarities and objectives

  • Improve the output from fishing farming and algae-growing resources.

Project (measures and actions)

  • Development of growth subsectors (spirulina).

  • Inventories of fish farming and algae-growing resources.

  • Development of fish farming sites and ponds.

  • Capacity building for fish farmers and provision of inputs.

Expected results

  • Inventory of fish farming resources completed.

  • Fish farming and algae-growing sites developed.

  • Fish farming agents trained and equipped.

Program 3.3.3: Water resources and meteorology

The program objective is to contribute to the improvement of agriculture and pasture output by improving meteorological data and information on surface waters.

Priorities and objectives

  • Apply agricultural and meteorological data.

  • Apply climatological data.

  • Control and make better use of surface waters.

  • Administer services.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Study of the water requirements of crops.

  • Study and publication of agrometeorological bulletins.

  • Dissemination of agrometeorological information and advice.

Expected results

  • Daily meteorological forecasts prepared.

  • Timetables for the sowing of various crops prepared.

  • Stations created, maintained, and inspected.

  • Lowlands inventoried.

Program 3.3.4: Management of the subsector

Priorities and objectives

  • Build the capacities (human, physical) of the ministry in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of its management and actions and thus enable it to better fulfill its mandate and achieve its objectives.

  • Improve the planning, coordination, and management capacities of the central and devolved entities.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Building of human, physical, and institutional capacities.

Expected results

  • Planning, coordination, and management capacities of entities enhanced.

III. 4 Environment, quality of life, and national parks

The importance of environmental issues has been reflected in the document on the Sectoral Consultation on Rural Development (CSDR) of June 1999. Other policies concerning the management of natural resources have also been implemented, specifically: the National Environmental Action Plan (PNAE), the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification (PAN/LCD), the National Biodiversity Strategy (SN/DB), and the National Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gases.

The programs supporting these policies are: (i) capacity building and monitoring of the subsector; (ii) management of forestry resources and anti-deforestation efforts; (iii) management of wildlife and protected lands; and (iv) environmental assessments and anti-pollution efforts.

Program 3.4.1: Capacity building and monitoring of the subsector

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the planning, coordination, and management capacities of the central and decentralized entities.

  • Provide adequate infrastructure and equipment for central and devolved levels of government.

  • Monitor and assess the ministry’s actions.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Enhancement of national capacities to rationally and sustainably manage natural resources.

  • Strengthening of the legislative, regulatory, and legal framework.

  • Provision of support for subsector monitoring.

  • Provision of support for the environmental information system.

Expected results

  • Planning, coordination, and monitoring/assessment management capacities of the central and decentralized entities enhanced.

  • Legislative and regulatory framework updated.

Program 3.4.2: Management of forestry resources and anti-desertification efforts

Priorities and objectives

  • Manage forestry resources sustainably.

  • Develop and implement local forest development plans.

  • Develop and implement a master plan for combating sand dune formation.

  • Increase awareness of environmental protection issues and disseminate sustainable techniques (management of natural resources, energy, anti-erosion techniques).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • National inventory of forestry resources.

  • Development of forests and sustainable management of village lands.

  • Soil protection and restoration /soil and water conservation.

  • Combating of sand dune formation in the Kanem and Lac regions.

  • Increase in the production capacity of the eight (8) tree nurseries in Chad

  • Support for the development of emerging subsectors (gum arabic, sheanuts, beekeeping, spirulina).

  • Promotion of alternative energy sources.

Expected results

  • Better information on and monitoring of forestry resources.

  • Soil fertility improved.

  • Sources of energy diversified.

  • Local forest development plans prepared and implemented.

  • Production capacity of the eight nurseries increased.

  • Support provided to emerging subsectors.

Program 3.4.3: Management of wildlife and protected lands

Priorities and objectives

  • Protect biodiversity, particularly through the Network of Protected Lands.

  • Collect information on wildlife resources and their dynamics.

  • Sustainably develop available resources.

  • Create new protected lands.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • National inventory of wildlife resources.

  • Development and management of protected lands and their surroundings.

  • Creation of new protected lands.

Expected results

  • Better information on wildlife resources.

  • Protected lands developed.

  • New protected lands created.

Program 3.4.4. Environmental assessments and anti-pollution efforts

Priorities and objectives

  • Integrate Environmental Impact Studies (EIS) in the various phases of the planning, implementation, and monitoring of projects/programs.

  • Define EIS procedures and content, and the roles of the various participants.

  • Develop and implement a National Environmental Audit and Assessment Guide.

  • Develop and implement an Intervention and Prevention Plan for accidental spills of chemical products and wastes.

  • Enhance the legal framework for carrying out EISs.

  • Inform, educate, and enhance the awareness of participants regarding EISs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Training in environmental assessments.

  • Environmental information, education, and communications.

  • Enhancement of the legislative, regulatory, and legal framework.

  • Development and implementation of the National Environmental Audit and Assessment Guide.

  • Development and implementation of the Intervention and Prevention Plan for accidental spills of chemical products and wastes.

Expected results

  • National Environmental Audit and Assessment Guide prepared and implemented.

  • National Prevention Plan and responses in the event of spills of chemical products and wastes developed and implemented.

  • Capacities of participants in the area of environmental assessments enhanced.

Pillar IV Developing infrastructure as a driver of growth

The NPRS2 places priority emphasis on the development of rural infrastructure to ensure that local products can be transported quickly to major consumption centers. It also assigns priority to rational management of the international corridors that are essential for the access of local products to global markets. Land use planning, energy, telecommunications, and safe drinking water are also important bases for economic growth and poverty reduction. The development of transport and urban growth are not only powerful engines of infrastructure improvement and expansion but also major sources of job creation and income.

IV. 1 Transport

The priorities of the strategy are as follows:

1) Protect existing capital by substantially increasing the funds spent on road maintenance, particularly the regular maintenance of previously neglected paved roads. The resources allocated to road maintenance will amount to approximately CFAF 7.7 billion beginning in 2008 and will cover the maintenance of at least 4,000 km of roads annually.

2) Continue the paving of main highways and expand the network of paved roads from 1,021 km in 2006 to 1,546 km by 2010. This program will include the following specific actions: (i) gradually complete the paving of the N’Djaména-Abéché road, (ii) link cities in the cotton-growing area to the N’Djaména-Moundou-Cameroon main road, and (iii) begin the construction of a road to Bol and the border with Niger.

3) Rehabilitate and maintain a network of regional and local roads that connect the main agricultural regions to the national network, including the rehabilitation of 274 km of dirt roads by 2011.

4) Carry out a multiyear program to rehabilitate rural roads with an annual budget of at least CFAF 4.5 billion. The structure of the program and the choice of roads to be rehabilitated will be determined in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Cotontchad.

5) Improve the management of the international corridors that are vital to the development of Chad’s foreign trade. For this, facilitation measures will be needed to improve operating conditions on the Cameroonian corridor, through which most of the Chad’s imports and exports travel.

6) Open up the country by maintaining a level of accessibility by air for all areas lacking passable roads in the rainy season, with a minimum level of compliance with the civil aviation safety standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Program 4.1.1: Road infrastructure

Priorities and objectives

  • Maintain the existing road network.

  • Open up the country both internally and externally.

  • Maintain an adequate network of roads that are passable in all seasons.

  • Maintain minimum accessibility to all regions of the country, particularly in the rainy season.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Rehabilitation and Génis RT (service-level) maintenance of 2,775 km of rural roads, including 2,000 in the cotton-growing area.

  • Regular maintenance of 770 km of improved dirt roads.

  • Routine maintenance of 4,000 km of the national road network.

  • Rehabilitation of 260 km of paved roads.

  • Paving of 525 km of dirt roads.

  • Construction of bridges (1 two-lane bridge over the Chari, a bridge over the Chari in Hélli Bongo, and another over the Logone in Moundou).

  • Implementation of a program to facilitate transport in the international corridors.

  • Rehabilitation of 274 km of dirt roads.

Expected results

  • Share of transport in import costs reduced by 20 percent.

  • 20 percent reduction in the average transit time for imports carried from Douala to N’Djaména.

  • 10 percent reduction in transport costs.

  • 3,600 km of roads passable in all seasons by 2011.

Program 4.1.2: Improvement of road safety and development of ground transport

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve and promote road safety.

  • Support the development of modes of ground transport and their operation.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Support for the development of social partners.

  • Enforcement of road traffic regulations.

  • Studies of the river and lake transport system and of international transport.

  • Construction of bus stations, 2 in N’Djaména, 1 in Abéché, and 1 in Moundou.

  • Support for the promotion of intermediate means of transport (IMT).

Expected results

  • Fewer traffic accidents.

Program 4.1.3: Administration and management of the sector:

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen the institutional, technical, and human capacities of the sector by retraining and training a sufficient number of managers, engineers, and other technical personnel involved in basic infrastructure planning and management.

  • Provide technical directorates and regional infrastructure offices with the facilities needed for their operations.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Institutional support for the sector’s planning and management units.

  • Establishment of a permanent training and capacity building mechanism.

Expected results

  • Capacities for managing the sector strengthened.

Program 4.1.4: Airports

Priorities and objectives

  • Open up the country by maintaining a minimum level of accessibility by air for all regions of the country lacking a permanent road connection, particularly in the rainy season, with a minimum level of compliance with the civil aviation safety standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Upgrading of the N’Djaména, Abéché, Sarh, Moundou, and Faya airports.

  • Maintenance of secondary airports.

  • Support for the Civil Aviation Authority.

Expected results

  • The country’s main airports are made safe, increasing traffic and opening up the country.

IV. 2 Land use, urban development, and housing

The objective of land use planning is to optimize the use of land for balanced economic and social development. The sector’s first priority is to train human resources and restore the regulatory framework that is essential for the implementation of land use and urban development programs. The second priority is to plan land use with an emphasis on better land management, the supply of water and sanitation services, the rebuilding of “old quarters,” and the establishment of commercial facilities. The third priority is to improve housing quality by implementing the National Housing Strategy (SNL).

Program 4.2.1: Administration and management of the sector:

Priorities and objectives

  • Establish the legal and regulatory framework of the land use, urban development, and housing sector.

  • Strengthen the ministry’s management capacities.

  • Improve program execution capacities.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Strengthening of the capacities of the ministry and other institutions involved in the sector.

  • Preparation and management of personnel training and career plans.

Expected results

  • Legislative documents and institutional framework prepared and approved.

  • Effective activity programs and annual budgets prepared.

  • Three fields of training identified and personnel trained.

Program 4.2.2: Urban development and land use:

Priorities and objectives

  • Define a national land use policy.

  • Prepare the National Land Use Plan (SNAT).

  • Prepare or support the preparation of regional and communal development plans/schemes.

  • Promote investment in cities with the greatest economic potential.

  • Promote urban jobs.

  • Increase the financial resources of municipalities and improve their management systems.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation of land use and spatial management tools.

  • Execution of priority projects in the urban sector (primarily in N’Djaména, Sarh, Abéché, Doba, and Moundou).

  • Strengthen municipal management capacities.

Expected results

  • One (1) National Land Use Plan prepared and adopted.

  • Two (2) Regional Land Use Master Plans prepared and adopted.

  • Land Use and Urban Development Master Plans for 4 major cities and 10 secondary towns prepared and adopted.

Program 4.2.3: Improvement of housing quality

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve living conditions in disadvantaged districts.

  • Qualitatively and quantitatively improve national real estate holdings.

  • Mobilize and judiciously allocate resources to low-income housing projects.

  • Create an action framework based on a facilitation approach.

  • Coordinate the actions of government agencies, formal and informal private stakeholders, associations, etc..

  • Permanently align macroeconomic policies with housing sector options.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation and revision of National Housing Strategy (SNL) programs.

Expected results

  • 80 percent of feasibility studies and documents prepared.

  • 7,000 parcels of land connected to a sanitation system.

  • 3,000 traditional residential parcels upgraded with basic infrastructure and equipment.

  • 5,000 new residences built and 3,000 old dwellings renovated.

IV. 3 Water and sanitation

Access to water in cities and in the rural sector is an essential component of any poverty reduction strategy.

To ensure more effective development and better sanitary conditions for the population, the strategy calls for improving the supply of safe drinking water to the residents of villages and semi-urban areas through the construction of water supply systems, as well as strengthening capacities for the monitoring and effective management of supply systems. In the field of sanitation, the strategy calls for the installation of urban and peri-urban sanitation systems in the country’s largest cities. The major problem of equipment maintenance necessitates the implementation of an extensive social mobilization program in the benificiary communities, taking full advantage of the operational capacities of the Chadian Red Cross 9

program 4.3.1: Supply of safe drinking water and sanitation:

Priorities and objectives

  • Supply safe drinking water to villages and urban and semi-urban centers;

  • Cover livestock watering needs.

  • Work to gain a better understanding of water resources.

  • Promote health education by building latrines.

  • Maintain water systems.

  • Strengthen human, organizational, and regulatory capacities.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Stock watering resources in Eastern Chad (Almy Bahaim 03).

  • Stock watering resources in Central Chad (Almy Al Afia).

  • Access to safe drinking water and support for the sectoral policy (European Development Fund, EDF).

  • National Program to Supply Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Areas (PNEAR).

  • Village water resources in Salamat and Lac Iro (120 manual pumps).

  • Village water resources in West Mayo Kebbi.

  • Management and rehabilitation of safe drinking water service in secondary centers.

  • Village water resources in Ouaddaï and Biltine (100 manual pumps).

  • Regional solar program, phase II (PRS 2).

Expected results

  • Piezometric network monitored and strengthened.

  • 200 pasture wells and 3,000 boreholes drilled.

  • Sectoral database available.

  • 80 semi-urban centers equipped.

  • 3,500 latrines built and 40 urban systems rehabilitated.

  • Rate of access to safe drinking water reaches 48 percent by 2011.

IV. 4 Mines and Energy

As a key factor of economic and social development, the mining and energy sector is given special attention by the government.

Development of the energy sector

The strategy is aimed at strengthening capacities for the production of electricity and expanding the existing infrastructure in N’Djaména and in secondary centers or towns. The first priority is the production of electricity. The second priority is to expand the use of gas throughout the country to halt deforestation, which is contributing to desertification. 10 This policy will be enhanced by encouraging the use of renewable energy sources and replacement sources such as kerosene. Finally, the promotion of atomic energy with IAEA support will facilitate the training of officials as well as technology transfers beneficial to all sectors.

Program 4.4.1: Energy production

Priorities and objectives

  • Make electricity affordable for a majority of the population.

  • Promote the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as industrial enterprises.

  • Boost economic output and improve social conditions.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Installation of new MBH or other generator sets.

  • Rural electrification project within the CAEMC framework.

  • Finalization and implementation of the energy master plan.

  • Rehabilitation/expansion of the distribution infrastructure in outlying areas.

  • Cameroon-Chad Electrical Connection Project.

Expected results

  • Cost per kWh reduced and number of subscribers increased.

  • At least 50 percent of demand satisfied in N’Djaména.

Program 4.4.2: Fuels

Priorities and objectives

  • Lower STEE’s fuel costs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Development of the Sédigui oilfield.

  • Construction of the Djemaya mini-refinery.

  • Processing of Doba crude (topping plant).

Expected results

  • Cost of fuel reduced, boosting STEE’s profitability.

Program 4.4.3: Promotion of renewable and replacement energy sources

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve living conditions in rural and peri-urban areas.

  • Preserve the nation’s wood fuel resources.

  • Combat desertification.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Update of ERPD (Decentralized Rural and Peri-Urban Electrification) feasibility studies.

  • Preparation of a rural electrification program.

  • Expansion of the National Gas Program to the entire country.

  • Studies on the use of kerosene as a replacement energy source.

  • Studies on the recovery and use of flare gas by the Doba Oil Consortium.

  • Studies to promote renewable energy sources.

Expected results

  • The National Gas Program covers three-fourths of the country.

  • The cost of government consumption is reduced by 30 percent.

  • Renewable energy sources identified.

Program 4.4.4: Atomic energy.

Priorities and objectives

  • Put in place an appropriate regulatory infrastructure to ensure radiological safety.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Drafting of laws and regulations.

  • Preparation and implementation of the IAEA support program for capacity building in the field of atomic energy.

Expected results

  • 80 percent of atomic energy laws and regulations are adopted.

  • Skills and technologies transferred.

Development of the mining sector

In the medium term, the aims of the strategy are to: (i) promote optimal development of the mining sector with a view to achieving sustained economic growth and, consequently, an increase in real per capita income with a view to reducing poverty; (ii) introduce new artisanal gold extraction techniques to improve the recovery of gold and assist in the training of local artisanal operators; (iii) modernize the working of natron deposits (Kanem and BET) by setting up semi-industrial processing systems; and (iv) prepare a master plan for mining and geology to improve the management of the sector.

The first mining sector priority is to set up a Mining Fund to cover the costs of: (a) refurbishing the laboratory in order to meet the needs of operators; (b) updating geological maps, which are essential to the promotion of foreign investment; (c) improving the mining code; and (d) expanding research projects, which have the potential to create at least 500 jobs for young people during the period covered by the strategy.

Program 4.4.5: Improvement of the legal framework

Priorities and objectives

  • Step up promising research projects and thus set the stage for the emergence of a modern mining industry operating within a renewed institutional and legal framework.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Update of the legal and regulatory framework.

Expected results

  • Existing documents revised and improved.

  • Appropriate legislation in place.

Program 4.4.6.: Geological research

Priorities and objectives

  • Draw up 1/500,000 scale mineral prospecting maps and 1/50,000, 1/5,000 and 1/500 scale geological maps.

  • Replenish documentary resources and put in place a document management system.

  • Verify mineralization indices.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Drawing up of mineral prospecting maps.

  • Replenishment of documentary resources and establishment of a document management system.

  • Drawing up of geological maps.

Expected results

  • Results disseminated and promoted within the profession.

  • Maps available.

Program 4.4.7: Promotion of the mining sector

Priorities and objectives

  • Introduce new artisanal gold extraction techniques.

  • Modernize the working of natron deposits.

  • Set up a purchasing office.

  • Strengthen the capacities of operators to improve their output.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Pilot Natron Operation.

  • Experimental artisanal gold extraction project in Gamboké (Pala).

  • Construction of a cement plant in Baoaré (Pala).

Expected results

  • Mining revenues improved and secured.

  • Statistics on quantities of natron and gold up to date.

  • Purchasing power of local communities increased.

  • Output of mining operators improved.

Program 4.4.8: Management of the sector

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen capacities with regard to infrastructure and the equipment of central and devolved levels of government.

  • Strengthen the human resources management capacities of the ministry.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Support for the strengthening of project planning and piloting capacities.

  • Strengthening of the hydrocarbons supply control system.

  • Automated customer service project.

Expected results

  • Institutional capacities strengthened.

  • More credible management of STEE, with improved operating results.

IV. 5 Post office and telecommunications, NICT

Aware of the role of telecommunications and postal services in economic and social development, the government in 1997 published a Policy Statement, the main thrust of which is to satisfy growing user demand and provide broad access at a lower cost.

The general objective of the management program for the sector is to plan, coordinate, and monitor implementation of the government’s policy on the development of postal services and telecommunications in urban and rural areas, disseminate information technologies, and strengthen the sector’s human resources and facilities with a view to enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of its management and its actions.

Accordingly, the sector’s first priority is to complete the subregional fiber optic project, which constitutes the basic infrastructure for the development of ICTs in Chad. E-governance, a pilot project involving the Office of the President of the Republic, the Office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Infrastructure, and the Ministry of the Post Office and New Communications Technologies, is the second priority. The third priority is to promote universal service through the construction of community access centers (Internet, office automation, media, telephony).

Program 4.5.1: Fiber optic network

One of the sector’s priorities is the integration of Chad into the international synthetic fiber communications network currently spreading across the continent. A subregional project linking Chad, Cameroon, and the CAR is being prepared. Concurrently, the government is installing a national fiber optic backbone network, which has already been extended to the Doba oil site. These projects will give Chad a comparative advantage in the management of voice communications, electronic data transfers, and Internet access.

Other measures are aimed at improving the sector’s performance, particularly through modernization of the legal framework, promotion of the government intranet, and implementation of a rural service strategy (multipurpose community telecenters).

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve Internet access.

  • Reduce the costs of telecommunications.

  • Make telecommunications available in all rural and peri-urban areas.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Installation of the fiber optic network between Doba and N’Djaména.

  • Integration of Chad into the international synthetic fiber communications network.

Expected results

  • Internet access improved.

  • Cost of communications reduced.

Program 4.5.2: Electronic governance

Priorities and objectives

Make government more effective and more efficient by providing the technical and human resources necessary to remedy: (i) the shortage of equipment in public institutions; (ii) the lack of internal and external connectivity, by setting up a network for the various departments, interlinking the ministries, and providing Internet access; (iii) the dispersion, insufficiency, and even the nonexistence of ICT applications, by consolidating databases, computerizing certain procedures, and establishing an Internet portal; (iv) the lack of capacities, by training government employees (skills development) and appointing qualified ITC personnel (basic training).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Gradual reduction of the digital divide between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas and expansion of the availability of telecommunications and ICT services.

Expected results

  • Availability of NICT services which are affordable, technically appropriate, and easily accessible at all levels and in all areas.

Program 4.5.3: Development of ICT

Priorities and objectives

  • Facilitate Chad’s gradual inclusion in the process of globalization and the information era.

  • Incorporate the ICT dimension in strategic choices in the areas of poverty reduction and economic and social development.

  • Make the most of Chad’s advantages in the context of globalization and national development by improving and promoting national products (agricultural, forestry, livestock, etc.).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the national strategy for the development of telecommunications and new information and communications technologies.

Expected results

  • Community telecenters created and operational.

  • NICT integrated in education and training programs.

Program 4.5.4: Capacity building

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen management structures and infrastructure

  • Revitalize the sector’s activities.

  • Strengthen negotiating power.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Restructuring of SOTEL.

  • Launch of MobilSotel.

Expected results

  • Regulatory capacity of the Ministry of the Post Office and Telecommunications strengthened.

Postal services

The first priority in the postal sector is to establish a legal and regulatory framework suited to the general CAEMC framework. The second priority is to revitalize postal services by improving postal checking services and by establishing postal savings and money transfer services. Strengthening rural service capacities by reestablishing the network of post offices is the third priority. Finally, it is important that the process of privatizing the STPE be completed.

Program 4.5.5: Reduction of postal density and improvement of the quality of the postal service

Priorities and objectives

  • Launch a process to diversify postal services and modernize the postal information and management system.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Establishment of a new legal and regulatory framework.

  • Strengthening of the express mail and courier services (EMS).

  • Introduction of ICT-based services.

  • Reopening of the Postal Checking and Savings Center.

  • Introduction and expansion of electronic money transfer systems.

  • Modernization and popularization of money orders.

Expected results

  • Postal service improved in all administrative regions and departments

  • Reasonable lengths of time for the routing and distribution of mail (D+4)

  • Density rate reduced from 220,000 inhabitants to no more than 155,000 per post office.

Pillar V: Developing human resources

Human resources constitute the main pillar of the development process in Chad, owing to (i) the minimal level of education of the labor force, 80 percent of which is employed in the agricultural, forestry, and livestock sector, where productivity is low, and (ii) the deficiency of basic social infrastructure. The strategy tackles the following challenges: (a) provide all Chadian children with a high-quality primary education by 2015; (b) eliminate the disparities in access to education between girls and boys by 2010; (c) provide high-quality public health care services to reduce the maternal and infant mortality rates; and (d) put in place social safety nets, which are essential to improve the living conditions of homeless children, the disabled, women, the elderly, and other socially marginalized groups.

V. 1 Education, training, and literacy

The primary objective of the education policy is to promote human resources with a view to enabling the people to play their role of catalysts in the process of socioeconomic development launched by the government in 2000. There are two basic reasons that make education the main pillar of this process: (i) the low productivity of the economy, resulting from the very limited training of human capital, and (ii) the impact of investment in education on the other indicators of other sectors (health, fertility, environment, etc.).11

Consequently, in the medium and long terms, education is the top priority of the National Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy.

Program 5.1.1: Basic education

To ensure that children from 6 to 15 years of age receive a complete education, the Framework Law of the Chadian Education System makes basic education mandatory. Basic education includes the primary level (CP1-CM2) and the first secondary cycle (6th – 3rd). The NPRS2, which is based on the principle of Education for All (EFA) and the MDGs, is fully consistent with that institutional requirement, reflecting the new education policy thrusts and making basic education the top priority of the education sector.

Program 5.1.1.1: Primary education

The government’s policy on basic education is primary education for all. It consists of ensuring that by 2015, all Chadian children, especially girls, nomadic children, and children in difficulty, are given access to mandatory, cost-free, high quality primary education and are able to complete it. To attain this objective, the first priority will be the training of (unqualified) community teachers, who make up 68 percent of the teaching corps, followed by teaching materials and resources, pedagogical supervision and monitoring, and, finally, the replacement of community classrooms. Special emphasis will be given to streamlining the process of using these resources to attain the established strategic objectives efficiently, by focusing on the selected priority intervention areas (ZIP).12

Priorities and objectives

  • Increase access and equity at all levels of education to raise the primary level completion rate from 35 percent in 2005 to 59 percent by 2011 and achieve a girl/boy ratio of 0.87 compared to 0.68 in 2005.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Grants to APEs13 to compensate 15,000 community teachers.

  • Training of 10,000 community teachers.

  • Basic training of 12,000 baccalaureat-level teachers.

  • Recruitment of 11,200 civil service teachers.

  • Acquisition of 4.246 million textbooks.

  • Training of 900 management and supervision personnel.

  • Acquisition of vehicles for pedagogical supervision.

  • Construction of 4,800 classrooms, including 140 for nomadic and isolated schools.

  • ENI (teacher training schools) rebuilding project.

Expected results

  • The framework, strategies, and practical arrangements for a high-quality primary education delivered equitably to all Chadian children by 2015 are in place by 2009-2010.

  • Community schools are fully integrated into the system, thanks to the implementation of management measures and provisions.

  • Capacities exist for the development of programs and textbooks: (a) bilingual teaching programs are developed for the first two years of primary education (CP1 and CP2), respectively; (b) textbooks are available for all classes, consisting of one reading textbook and one mathematics textbook for each student, with one scientific textbook available for every two students in the third- through sixth-year classes; and (c) the new primary-level bilingual teaching program has been tested and publicized, and is ready to be implemented.

Program 5.1.1.2: First cycle of secondary education

The objective is to strengthen intake capacities owing to the high rate of sixth-year promotions, which are difficult to contain, and to improve learning conditions by reducing the teacher and textbook coverage ratios.

Priorities and objectives

  • Expand secondary school intake capacities with a view to achieving a gross enrollment ratio in the first cycle of 42 percent (compared to 30 percent in 2005) and a girl/boy ratio of 0.61, versus 0.3 in 2005.

  • Reduce the level of dropouts to 9 percent in the first cycle, in contrast to 17 percent in 2005.

  • Strengthen pedagogical monitoring capacities.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of 35 collèges.

  • Training of 400 pedagogical advisors and 80 secondary inspectors.

  • Recruitment of 2,000 CEG (collège d’enseignement général)teachers.

  • Basic training and continuing education of 3,000 CEG teachers

Expected results

  • The basic foundation of human resources necessary for growth is in place.

  • The gross enrollment ratio in the first cycle reaches 42 percent compared to 30 percent in 2005.

  • The girl/boy ratio reaches 73 percent, up from 32 percent in 2005.

Program 5.1.2: Adult literacy

The government’s literacy policy is based on strengthening the capacities of economic agents and involving communities through the “outsourcing” strategy.

Priorities and objectives

  • Raise the educational level of rural populations.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of 400 literacy centers.

  • Recruitment of 3,400 instruction and supervisory personnel.

  • Project to combat illiteracy in Chad.

  • Production and distribution of 105,000 books and 100,000 instruction guides.

Expected results

  • 200,000 adults (60 percent women) taught to read and write.

Program 5.1.3: Technical secondary education and vocational training

Identified as the second education policy priority in the conclusions of the January 2000 sectoral meeting on education and training, this program is the linchpin of the poverty reduction and economic recovery process. The large number of students seeking entry to secondary school and the imbalances observed between supply and demand necessitate a drastic reduction in the secondary school admission rate to 50 percent by 2010. At least 200,000 students leaving school should receive a minimum set of essential skills to enable them to enter the work force.

Priorities and objectives

  • Increase the intake capacities of ETFP institutions to accept at least 4,300 young people exiting the basic level.

  • Rationalize the ETFP supply and align it with the job market.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of 42 centers providing apprenticeship vocational training, particularly in disadvantaged areas.

  • Construction of 4 technical lycées offering technological courses.

  • Construction of 5 vocational training centers.

  • Establishment of an ETFP information and guidance system.

  • Conversion of the CETIN (Collège d’Enseignement Technique Industriel) of Sarh into an industrial technical lycée.

  • Strengthening of the OBSEFE (Observatory for Education and Training Linked to Employment).

Expected results

  • At least 100,000 young people leaving basic education have been prepared for their entry into the labor force.

  • ETFP is aligned with the needs of the job market.

Program 5.1.4: Higher education and vocational training

The overall aim of the higher education and research development strategy is to overhaul higher education by increasing ownership of the criteria of excellence and quality, relying both on current traditional and virtual (non face-to-face) methods.

Priorities and objectives

  • Increase the intake capacities of universities.

  • Strengthen the qualifications of teachers through registration in a list of qualified teachers.

  • Enhance the professionalism of the higher education subsectors.

  • Create an institutional environment that allows the sciences and technology to thrive.

  • Revitalize vocational training.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction of a university campus with a capacity of 50,000 students.

  • Construction and equipment of an Institute of Architectural Arts and Professions in Biltine.

  • Construction and equipment of a Petroleum Institute in Mao.

  • Construction of five (5) research laboratories, including one (1) working in Arabic.

  • Capacity building in six (6) institutions of higher education.

  • Provision of additional scientific equipment for the University of N’Djaména.

  • Networking of vocational training.

  • Creation of a National Fund to Support Scientific and Technical Research.

  • Implementation of the Bachelor’s-Master’s-Doctorate system.

  • Reorganization of the university scholarship system to enhance its equity.

Expected results

  • At least 50,000 secondary school graduates have access to an improved learning environment.

  • Higher education graduates’ rate of entry into the labor force increased from 10 percent in 2003 to 30 percent by 2011.

  • Highly qualified teachers provide a professional-level education.

  • Existing training institutions are strengthened, particularly in the scientific fields.

  • The environment for scientific research is improved.

  • The vocational training framework is better organized and better suited to the job market.

Program 5.1.5: Planning and management

The government’s education policy in the field of administration is to improve the management/orientation of the system and the partnership, which entails more effective and more efficient management of the resources made available to the departments. The government’s determination to exert its power through extensive decentralization will contribute positively to that objective.

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen the statistical information system and the school districting map.

  • Strengthen the capacities of the personnel of the DAAFM (Logistical, Financial and Administrative Affairs Directorate) and the DRH (Directorate of Human Resources) in the techniques of managing education resources.

  • Modernize administrative and guidance units.

  • Increase community participation in the management of schools.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Initial training and continuing education for 1,080 planning personnel.

  • Training of 2,000 COGES/APE personnel.

  • Training of 480 education managers.

  • Regular public expenditure reviews and preparation of an MTEF.

  • Establishment of a system for tracking expenditure by purpose.

  • Reorganization of the MEN personnel file.

Expected results

  • A reliable and credible information system is in place.

  • The rate of teacher absenteeism has been halved as a result of the supervision of staff and improved monitoring of appointments.

  • PER, PAP, and MTEF reports are available every year.

  • Resource absorption capacities strengthened.

  • The rate of arrival of school supplies and services at their destination is at least 50 percent.

  • FENAPET (National Federation of Parents Associations of Chad) is recognized as a key partner in the management of the system, with a larger contribution of resources each year for the guidance of the system.

V. 2 Health

Public health remains a troubling issue, considering the morbidity rate of 22.4 percent according to ECOSIT2, with no significant difference between women and men. Many Chadians have no access to basic health care (36 percent),14 either because of difficulties related to physical distance (18 percent),15 the cost of health services (49.5 percent),16 insufficient medical technical support services,17 or the lack of qualified personnel18 and/or drugs and vaccines. This situation has major repercussions on the country’s social and health indicators. In Chad, 1 child in 5 dies before his or her fifth birthday; at least 500 women die each year in childbirth,19 and the incidence of diseases with epidemic outbreaks, such as cholera and meningitis, repeatedly catches the health system unaware.

The overall objective in this sector is to provide the population with access to high-quality basic health services to accelerate the reduction of mortality and morbidity and thus contribute to attainment of the MDGs by 2015. Priority attention is given to the most vulnerable population groups. Accordingly, the Chadian Red Cross, the sector’s preferred partner, is an important catalyst for implementation, owing to its considerable mobilization and awareness-raising capacities.20.

The sector’s first priority is to rationalize the use of human resources and to augment them, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The second priority is assigned to the effective functioning of health districts and health centers. The availability of vaccines in all basic health facilities and access to generic drugs are the third priority of the National Health Policy. The government has adopted emergency programs aimed at reducing the rate of maternal mortality and providing free emergency services and antiretroviral treatments. Special emphasis will be place on combating communicable and noncommunicable diseases, particularly malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other illnesses.

Program 5.2.1: Human resources and training

The accessibility, availability, and quality of health care are closely linked to the availability, quality, and motivation of health care workers. Unfortunately, the health sector suffers from a double handicap: a shortage of human resources that is both quantitative and qualitative in nature, and the poor geographic distribution of available personnel. More than half the country’s health care workers are concentrated in the large cities, particularly N’Djaména, the capital. Moreover, the training capacities of the educational institutions (20 doctors, 40 nurses, 20 midwives, and 180 health technicians graduated each year) prevent the country from responding to the serious staffing shortages in the health care system. Consequently, the National Health Policy is based on two priority areas of action: (i) strengthening policies and strategies for human resources management in the health field, with special emphasis on strategies to motivate personnel at all levels, and (ii) enhancing the skills of health sector human resources (initial training and continuing education).

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the management of human resources.

  • Staff health facilities with qualified personnel in accordance with the applicable standards.

  • Strengthen the capacities of the national education institutions.

  • Provide degree training and continuing education for individual staff.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Formulation of strategies to redress the quantitative and qualitative imbalances between central and outlying services (contractualization/regionalization of training centers) through the creation of two new regional schools and the enlargement of four regional training schools (EFR).

  • Implementation of the “2001-2030 Strategic Plan for the Development of Human Resources in the Health Sector.”

  • Promotion of personnel, in recognition of motivation and effectiveness.

  • Establishment of a personnel database.

  • Provision of tools essential for planning training.

  • Strengthening of training capacities by making the Biltine Health Education Institute (ECOSAB) and the four FIDs fully operational.

  • Provision of training abroad, with the uninterrupted payment of scholarships and research grants.

Expected results

  • Qualified personnel available in greater numbers in district hospitals and health centers (at least 65 percent).

  • Rate of concentration of personnel in large cities less than 30 percent.

  • Personnel management tools (database, planning system, training plan, etc.) available.

  • National training capacities strengthened, doubling the number of qualified graduates.

  • Training plans updated, available, and executed.

  • Opportunities for training abroad improved for all students.

  • Health research program available and broadly disseminated.

Program 5.2.2: Operational capacity of health districts

Despite efforts to enable health districts and jurisdictions to provide high-quality health care, deficiencies persist, including: (i) poor professional qualifications of personnel; (ii) inadequate implementation of the Minimum Package of Services (PMA) and the Complementary Package of Services (PCA), particularly in the fields of maternal and infant health care; (iii) poor quality of services; and (iv) organizational weaknesses.

The program covers 18 regional health offices and 65 health districts, of which 56 are operational, with 722 of 911 health centers in operation. Under the NPRS2, differential and complementary targeted actions will be taken in 25 priority health districts to improve the access of the most disadvantaged groups. In this program, priority is also given to existing health centers that are shut down, with a view to placing them back in operation.

Priorities and objectives

  • Monitor the performance of district administrative departments to facilitate accessibility.

  • Streamline the management of district hospitals.

  • Increase community participation.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Construction/rehabilitation of 98 health centers and 18 district hospitals.

  • Increased decentralization of the provision of services.

  • Free emergency care.

  • Increased contractualization in 10 pilot health districts.

  • Training of management committees (COSAN/COGES) to enhance accountability.

  • Compliance with standards governing the management of hospitals and health services.

Expected results

  • 80 percent of the 49 unified health districts are operational.

  • First-tier health coverage expanded to 80 percent.

  • Standards governing the management of district hospitals improved.

  • Cost recovery system well in hand.

Program 5.2.3: Drugs and vaccines

Implementation of the National Drug Policy adopted in 1998 led to significant progress in improving the affordability and geographic accessibility of essential drugs. This policy advocates the separation of administrative tasks from the supply and distribution functions.

Increasing the availability and rational use of reliable, effective, high-quality drugs that are also affordable for the public is crucial to the quality of the health system’s response to needs identified in the epidemiological profile. However, the consolidation and perpetuation of still fragile gains are necessary, and a major effort must still be made to provide the population with affordable, high-quality drugs.

Priorities and objectives

  • Guarantee the quality of drugs in Chad.

  • Make generic drugs available and affordable.

  • Improve access to vaccines.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Make 18 regional supply pharmacies operational.

  • Provide the Expanded Programme of Immunizations (EPI) with required resources (vaccines and syringes, cold chains, equipment, and logistics).

  • Free antiretroviral treatments.

  • Enforcement of Law 24.

  • Stabilization of the Central Drug Procurement Agency (CPA) by guaranteeing the security of its payments.

Expected results

  • Better quality drugs chosen.

  • Availability of drugs ensured throughout the country at prices that are affordable for the majority of the population.

  • Generic drugs (EGD) rationally prescribed.

  • Vaccination coverage per antigen increased by at least 85 percent.

  • Polio eradicated; neonatal tetanus reduced; measles under control.

Program 5.2.4: Combating diseases

One of the priority thrusts of the country’s health policy is to provide integrated delivery of primary health care and hospital care to improve the quality of the response to communicable and noncommunicable diseases, particularly malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other illnesses.

Priorities and objectives

  • Reduce malaria-related mortality.

  • Provide care for noncommunicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, traumas, etc.).

  • Slow the transmission of HIV/AIDS and reverse the trend by 2010.

  • Improve care for tuberculosis patients.

  • Reduce morbidity and mortality related to endemic and epidemic diseases.

  • Reduce neonatal maternal morbidity and mortality.

  • Improve the performance of the National Prosthetics and Functional Rehabilitation Center (CNAR).

  • Provide care for the mentally ill.

  • Intervention capacities of program units strengthened.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Implementation of the “insecticide-treated mosquito nets” program.

  • Implementation and use of ACT (artemisinin-based combination therapies) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis in all hospitals and districts and in all health centers.

  • Prevention of malaria based on Intermittent Presumptive Treatment for at least 80 percent of pregnant women.

  • Development of relais communautaires(community health workers) for IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness).

  • Integration of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS.

  • Strengthening of public information campaigns to change HIV sexual risk behavior.

  • Strengthening of free clinics in district hospitals and distribution of ARVs free of charge.

  • Strengthening of ongoing Reproductive Health (RH) Programs (raising awareness of contraceptive methods, antenatal consultations, emergency obstetric care (EOC) and treatment of fistula, training, equipment, etc.).

  • Construction and equipment of the CNAR.

  • Construction and equipment of the psychiatric hospital.

  • Equipment for program units.

  • Strengthening of the partnership with the Chadian Red Cross.

Expected results

  • Community IMCI practiced in a least one jurisdiction per district, and infant-child mortality rate down 10 points every year.

  • Maternal mortality rate down from 1,099 to 500 per 100,000 live births.

  • Rates of prevalence of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis reduced.

  • CNAR and psychiatric hospital operational.

  • Intervention capacities of program units strengthened.

Program 5.2.5: Autonomy of hospitals

The future development of the health system hinges on the autonomy of the largest district hospitals. At present, Chad has 5 large autonomous hospitals: Hôpital Général de Référence Nationale (HGRN), Hôpital de la Liberté, and the regional hospitals of Moundou, Abéché, and Sarh. Only the HGRN, which receives an annual grant from the government, is actually autonomous. The others depend on decentralized appropriations.

Ensuring the autonomy of the four other hospitals, monitoring them, and providing them with sufficient operating resources is therefore the basic priority of this program.

Priorities and objectives

  • Make Hôpital de la Liberté and the hospitals of Moundou, Abéché, and Sarh truly autonomous.

  • Rationalize and organize the management of autonomous hospitals.

  • Increase the supply of reference health care services.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Signing and implementation of legislation governing hospital autonomy.

  • Upgrading of the 5 autonomous hospitals to comply with standards (personnel, infrastructure, equipment).

Expected results

  • Hôpital de Liberté and the hospitals of Moundou, Abéché, and Sarh are autonomous and receive grants.

  • Medical technical support services of hospitals improved and new services proposed.

Program 5.2.6: Administration and management

The Ministry of Health views the strengthening of sectoral capacities for coordination and implementation of the National Health Policy and the related programs as a top priority. The operational deficiencies of the central and outlying units must be corrected to enable them to function as catalysts in the development of the health system.

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve capacities for planning, coordination, and the management of central and devolved units.

  • Strengthen the operational capacities of units.

  • Ensure the reliability and credibility of the information system (statistical, financial).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation and implementation of a capacity building plan.

  • Construction of a new building to house the Ministry of Health.

  • Preparation of manuals on planning procedures and resource management (directives, tools).

Expected results

  • Capacities for managing and orienting the system are strengthened.

  • Management tools such as the MTEF and PAP budgets are currently in use in the sector.

  • Monitoring instruments such as the PER and the SSDD are providing useful information for budget programming.

  • Statistical data are produced on a timely basis, are reliable, and are used in the program planning, monitoring, and control system.

V. 3 Social welfare, promotion of women, and gender equality

Chad has experienced difficult socioeconomic conditions over the years, owing to drought, famine, continuing political instability since independence, and many other misfortunes that have negatively affected various segments of the population. These factors have inhibited the harmonious development of individuals and kept them from thriving. Combined with recurring political and military crises, accelerated urbanization, and the disintegration of social and family values, poverty in Chad has led to the emergence of such phenomena as homeless children, children who are economically and/or sexually exploited, child mothers who become prostitutes, child laborers, young offenders, etc. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, because of the orphans left in its wake and the children it infects or affects to varying degrees, has worsened the social situation of the most disadvantaged segments of the population, who are often the most vulnerable..

The sector’s overall objective is to contribute to the development of the country’s human capital. In addition to the family, the government gives special attention to the situation of women and the disadvantaged (the disabled, beggars, the excluded, etc.). The specific objectives pursued in recent years are based on the three following programming thrusts: (i) improve the living conditions of vulnerable groups; (ii) provide legal and social protection for disadvantaged groups; and (iii) promote the socioprofessional integration of the disabled.

To attain these objectives, top priority is given to the care of children in need of special protection, the protection and economic and social integration of the disabled, the promotion of women and gender equality, and the protection of the elderly and families in difficulty.

Program 5.3.1: Protection and development of young children and adolescents.

On the eve of the World Summit for Children (1990), the situation of children in Chad was critical owing to the lack of care and education infrastructure, qualified personnel, and resources, as well as the long period of political and institutional instability that the country had experienced. The priority actions of the government are designed, first, to benefit children in need of special protection (CNSP), particularly children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, as well as homeless children and child victims of abuse and exploitation.

Priorities and objectives

  • Create a legal and social environment conducive to the protection of children.

  • Expand early childhood care and education.

  • Improve the registration of births.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Adoption of the Child Protection Code.

  • Formulation of the national policy for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children.

  • Construction of the National Center for the Training and Social Reintegration of Homeless Children (CNAFER).

  • Construction and equipment of 20 nursery schools and child care facilities, 20 community day care centers.

  • Training of municipal authorities, OPJs (criminal investigation officers), social workers, judges, and staff of CNSP care and education institutions trained in ENPS issues and care.

  • Increase in the registration of births.

  • Training of municipal advisors, OPJs, social workers, judges, and staff of ENPS care and education institutions in CNSP issues.

  • Signing of partnership agreements with the various entities working on behalf of children.

Expected results

  • The rate of care and education provided to children aged 0-6 increased from 4 percent to 7 percent.

  • The rate of registration of births increased from 6 percent to 15 percent

  • CNSPs cared for and reintegrated (10,000 children in survival strategy; 15,000 AIDS orphans and vulnerable children).

  • Child victims of abuse, negligence, and sexual and economic exploitation identified and cared for.

  • Families and communities taking in AIDS orphans and vulnerable children trained and supported.

  • Partnership agreements signed with the participants.

  • Situation of CNSPs documented.

Program 5.3.2: Protection and promotion of the disabled

Most disabled individuals are illiterate, have no vocational skills, and are therefore unemployed or driven to begging. However, the disabled are organized into associations and/or unions, which facilitates their integration into the work force in a more mutually supportive environment. Few organizations participate in financing the training and integration of the disabled in Chad. The government has taken steps to guarantee free education for the disabled. The program is aimed at ensuring better training and more effective assistance for the destitute.

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the rehabilitation and socioprofessional integration of the disabled (motor disabled, partially sighted, hearing impaired, intellectually challenged).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Study on the prevalence of handicaps and the real needs of the disabled in Chad.

  • Construction of 6 centers for the training and integration of the disabled.

  • Census of disabled persons in Chad.

Expected results

  • Most disabled persons living with HIV/AIDS are assisted.

  • 15 specialized educators trained.

  • 30 employees of the Directorate for the Reintegration of the Disabled are retrained.

  • 25 percent of the 700,000 disabled are socially and professionally integrated.

  • 300 leaders of organizations for the disabled trained in various fields.

  • 15 percent of the disabled targeted by the program are able to read and write.

  • 25,000 disabled children and children of disabled persons provided with educational, health, and vocational assistance.

Program 5.3.3: Promotion of women and gender issues

Women in Chad make up 52 percent of the population, most live in rural areas (80 percent), and the majority of women are illiterate. They represent a very large proportion of the labor force, especially in the agricultural and livestock sector and in the informal sector: women working in these sectors make up 86 percent of the female labor force. However, they are greatly undervalued because of the many forms of discrimination which they face. Their status is defined by a lack of political and economic opportunities, little involvement in decision-making at all levels, as well as limited access to basic social services. They continue to be victims of gender-based violence. As a result, they are more likely to be poor. The segment of the female population most affected is that of female heads of household (22 percent according to the 1993 GCPH). The proportion of poor households is 55 percent, and households headed by a woman are more vulnerable to poverty (54 percent as opposed to 34 percent).

The new political guidelines concerning gender are based on the third Millennium Development Goal, which calls for the reduction of inequalities in access to basic services (health, education, nutrition), nonagricultural paid employment, and promotion of the participation of women in public and community life. The first priority in this case is to build the capacities of women, particularly in rural areas (the most vulnerable) with a view to promoting their empowerment, followed by the representation of women in political, economic, and social decision-making, as well as the inclusion of gender issues in the preparation and implementation of development policies and strategies.

The priority actions identified under this policy are: (i) improvement of the social and legal environment of women; (ii) strengthening of actions to empower women; (iii) capacity building and advocacy for the inclusion of gender issues in development policies and strategies; and (iv) enhancement of the partnership for gender equality and equity.

Priorities and objectives

  • Improve the socioeconomic and legal status of women.

  • Promote the inclusion of gender issues in national development policies and programs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Prepare, adopt, and implement the National Gender Policy.

  • National Action Plan to Combat SGBV (Sexual and Gender-Based Violence).

  • Establishment of a National Gender Development Fund.

  • Capacity building for the personnel of rural and urban women’s organizations in specific fields.

  • Promotion of schooling for girls and the functional literacy of women.

  • Project to promote NICT to benefit women.

  • Agreement with the Chadian Red Cross to promote “gender development.”21

  • Creation of a Gender Equality Observatory in Chad.

Expected results

  • National Gender Policy (PNG) prepared and adopted.

  • PNG Action Plan prepared and approved.

  • Existence of mechanisms for the integration of gender issues in all sectors.

  • 30 percent of women appointed to decision-making bodies.

  • 30 percent of deputies are women.

  • Prevalence of domestic violence against women reduced by 30 percent.

  • Reduction in the prevalence of female genital mutilation.

  • 180,000 rural women taught to read and write.

  • Girl/boy equity achieved in primary education.

  • The income of rural women is increased.

Program 5.3.4: Protection and promotion of the family

The various socioeconomic and political crises that Chad has endured since independence have affected the general population and vulnerable groups in particular. This situation is especially serious as parental authority, the education of children, and the cohesion and well-being of families have been greatly altered. It is therefore essential to protect the family and promote appropriate activities to improve living conditions and strengthen the primary role of parental responsibility. The program is aimed at improving the living conditions of disadvantaged persons and needy families to help them adapt to socioeconomic and cultural changes.

Priorities and objectives

  • Establish a legal framework covering social welfare issues.

  • Contribute to improvement of the living conditions of vulnerable persons and families taking in AIDS orphans and vulnerable children.

  • Build the institutional and human resource capacities of the DAS (Directorate of Social Action).

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation of a social welfare policy.

  • Training of 80 social workers in Education in Family Life.

  • Psychosocial and material assistance for PLHIV (persons living with HIV).

  • Creation of a directory of economic interest groups and cooperatives.

  • Material, psychosocial, and legal assistance for vulnerable persons (displaced persons, disaster victims, social cases).

  • Construction and equipment of 4 senior homes in N’Djaména, Moundou, Sarh, and Abéché.

  • Campaign to raise family awareness of the risks associated with the consumption of drugs and alcohol.

  • Pyschosocial assistance for 10,000 drug addicts and alcoholics.

  • Redefinition of the package of implementing unit actions.

  • Social leadership training for 60 social workers.

  • Community development training for 100 social welfare officials.

  • Training of 20 planning officials, specialized educators, and social inspectors.

  • Retraining of 200 social welfare officials.

  • Construction of 20 social centers.

Expected results

  • Persons and Family Code adopted and disseminated.

  • Social welfare policy prepared and adopted.

  • 30 percent of needy families identified are assisted.

  • 200,000 displaced persons and disaster victims assisted.

  • 7,500 social cases assisted and supported.

  • 300,000 persons made aware of the harmful effects of drugs and alcohol.

  • 10,000 drug addicts and alcoholics rehabilitated.

  • Social welfare situation documented and funded.

Program 5.3.5: Institutional capacity building

The broad range of actions to be taken by the Ministry of Social Action, National Solidarity and the Family requires appropriate institutional and human resources. However, the resources needed to ensure the development and monitoring of social policies are quantitatively and qualitatively lacking. This assessment was made in the analysis of the ministry’s capacities carried out in 2003. Consequently, this department is very poorly equipped for effective day-to-day and forward-looking management.

Priorities and objectives

  • Strengthen human resources.

  • Build capacities for the planning and implementation of social development programs and projects.

  • Improve the coordination, monitoring, and assessment of the implementation of the ministry’s programs.

Projects (measures and actions)

  • Preparation of a three-year social development action plan.

  • Preparation and implementation of a training plan.

  • Construction of the ministry.

  • Establishment of a higher education institution for social workers.

  • Construction and equipment of 15 regional offices.

  • Signing of partnership agreements with institutions and entities working in the field of social promotion and welfare.

Expected results

  • Planning, management, and guidance capacities strengthened.

ANNEX II: BUDGETARY AND MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK