Front Matter
  • 1 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund

Front Matter Page

Fiscal Affairs Department

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADB

Asian Development Bank

AEs

Advanced Economies

AfDB

African Development Bank

AR5

the IPCC 5th Assessment Report

CAT-DDO

Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option

CCPA

Climate Change Policy Assessment

CCRIF

Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility

CERC

Contingent Emergency Response

CIF

Climate Investment Funds

COVID-19

Coronavirus disease

CTF

Clean Technology Fund

CRI

Global Climate Risk

DFID

United Kingdom Department for International Development

EMs

Emerging Markets

EU

European Union

ESR

Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited

FAD

Fiscal Affairs Department

FSM

Federated States of Micronesia

GCCA+

Global Climate Change Alliance

GCF

Green Climate Fund

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GFDRR

Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery

GHG

Greenhouse Gas

HDI

Human Development Index

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency virus

IADB

Inter-American Development Bank

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

kW (h)

Kilowatt (-hour)

LI DCs

Low-Income Developing Countries

ln

Natural logarithm

MDB

Multilateral Development Bank

MENA

Middle East North Africa

NDC

Nationally Determined Contribution

ND-GAIN

Notre Dame, Global Adaptation Initiative

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PCRIC

Pacific Catastrophe Insurance Company

PCRAFI

Pacific Catastrophe Insurance Company

%

percent

ppt

percentage point

PFM

Public Financial Management

RAI

Rural Access Index

RAT

Revenue Administration Tool

RCP

Representative Concentration Pathways

RE

Renewable Energy

SDG

Sutainable Developemnt Goals

SDS

Small Developing States

SISRI

Small Island States Resilience Initiative

SFA

Stochastic Frontier Analysis

SLR

Sea-level rise

SROCC

Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

SSA

Sub-Saharan Africa

UN

United Nations

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

UNSTAT

United Nations Statistics Division

US$

United States Dollar

VNR

Voluntary National Review

WASH

Water Sanitation and Hygiene

WDI

World Development Indicators

WEO

World Economic Outlook

WHO

World Health Organization

Table of Contents

  • I. INTRODUCTION

  • II. SDS GROWTH-CLIMATE NEXUS AND PROGRESS TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOEMENT

  • III. COSTING SDGS IN CLIMATE VULNERABILE SDS: APPROACH

  • A. Physical Infrastructure (Roads, Energy/Electricity and WASH)

  • B. Social Development Sectors (Health, Education)

  • IV. COST OF MEETING DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE GOALS

  • A. Aggregate Results

  • B. Spending Composition

  • V. FINANCING FOR CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENT

  • VI. CONCLUSIONS

  • VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • BOXES

  • 1: COVID-19 Crisis and Progress toward Sustainable Development in SDS

  • 2: Estimating Future Climate Change Impacts

  • 3: Small but Important Role of Energy Taxation

  • FIGURES

  • 1. Climate Vulnerabilities and Policy and Institutional Readiness

  • 2. SDS: Progress in Meeting Selected SDG Targets

  • 3. SDS with Climate Vulnerabilities: Additional Cost to Meet Five SDGs in 2030

  • 4. SDS with Climate Vulnerabilities: Additional Cost to Meet SDGs in 2030

  • 5. SDS with Climate Vulnerabilities: Additional Cost to Meet SDGs in 2030

  • 6. SDS: Cost of Climate Resilience to Meet SDGs in Road Infrastructure

  • 7. Current and Potential Tax Revenue for SDS

  • 8. SDS: Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on General Government Debt

  • TABLES

  • 1. SDS ‘A’: Additional Cost to Meet Energy Targets in 2030

  • 2. SDS ‘B’: Change in Health Inputs to Reach SDG Health Outcomes by 2030

  • 3. SDS: Change in Health Inputs to Reach Health Outcomes of Peers

  • 4. SDS: Change in Education Inputs to Reach Education Outcome of Peers

  • ANNEXES

  • 1. Country Sample

  • 2. An indication of National Hazard Categories and Intensities in SDS

  • 3. Selected Data Sources

  • 4. Summary Statistics

  • 5. Tax Capacity Estimates using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA)

  • 6. Examples of ‘Climate Funds’

  • APPENDIX TABLES

  • 1. Summary Statistics

  • 2. Stochastic Frontier Analysis Coefficients

  • REFERENCES

Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals in Small Developing States with Climate Vulnerabilities: Cost and Financing
Author: Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, and Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka