The sharp decline in oil and other commodity prices have adversely impacted sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the region is projected to register another year of solid economic performance. In South Africa, however, growth is expected to remain lackluster, while in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone the Ebola outbreak continues to exact a heavy economic and social toll. This report also considers how sub-Saharan Africa can harness the demographic dividend from an unprecedented increase in the working age population, as well as the strength of the region's integration into global value chains.
This Annual Progress Report reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and Economic and Social Plan for 2007 for Mozambique. The report presents the new simplified structure adopted in the Review of the First Half of 2007. In the international context, the evolution of the international economy is presented, which allows a visualization of the international economic conditions in which the country has implemented its economic and social policy. The activities of the environment and the science and technology sectors are also described.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes recent trends in poverty and social indicators for Zimbabwe. It discusses land reform, agricultural policies, and the outcomes. The paper presents background information on the evolution of inflation and money aggregates in Zimbabwe. It analyzes the demand of money since the late 1990s, and discusses factors that can lead to diverging paths of inflation and money growth in the short term. The paper also analyzes Zimbabwe’s export performance in recent years, and identifies the factors that could improve export performance, from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective.
This paper reviews Mozambique’s economic and social plan for 2003. It presents the actions that have been taken to improve the current planning instrument. The paper outlines the social and demographic profile of Mozambique and reviews the extent to which the current strategy for the reduction of absolute poverty in the country is meeting its aims. Results are presented in terms of changes in the welfare indicators, and the extent to which Mozambique is on course to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
HIV/AIDS is a major and immediate concern for Zimbabwe. Current prevalence rates are at a level close to 20 percent of the total population, and at over 30 percent for adults in the 15–49 age group. The number of AIDS-related deaths, and of orphans are indicative of the adverse, current and future impact upon a fragile health-care system, fiscal balance, human capital accumulation, production, and economic growth. The food shortages of the past year have exacerbated the situation, as many patients fail to attain adequate nutrition levels and food intake and their families’ coping mechanisms are stretched to the limit. This chapter presents an overview of recent trends in prevalence rates; discusses the impact on social sectors and the strategies being adopted by the government and the international community to address these; and summarizes quantitative estimates of the fiscal burden and overall medium-term macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS on Zimbabwe.
The paper evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS on welfare in several countries affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Unlike studies focusing on the impact of HIV/AIDS on GDP per capita, we evaluate the impact of increased mortality using estimates of the value of statistical life. Our results illustrate the catastrophic impact of HIV/AIDS in the worst-affected countries and suggest that studies focusing on GDP and income per capita capture only a very small proportion of the welfare impact of HIV/AIDS.
The paper provides an analysis of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, public education, the supply of labor and the returns to training in nine Southern African countries. Drawing on the preceding sections, it assesses the impact of HIV/AIDS on per capita income in a neoclassical growth framework. HIV/AIDS affects per capita income mainly through its impact of human capital, as measured by the supply of experienced workers. Other factors include the impact on capital accumulation, on education, and on total factor productivity.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
When an IMF mission visited Swaziland for the annual Article IV consultation in April 2000, it discussed with the authorities the economic and social implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic that the country is experiencing. This article highlights some of the issues that emerged during the visit, such as the scale of the demographic impact, the impact on the public and private sectors, and government strategies to combat the epidemic.
This paper describes the need to broaden the agenda for poverty reduction. The broadening of the agenda follows from a growing understanding that poverty is more than low income, a lack of education, and poor health. The poor are frequently powerless to influence the social and economic factors that determine their well being. The paper highlights that a broader definition of poverty requires a broader set of actions to fight it and increases the challenge of measuring poverty and comparing achievement across countries and over time.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper examines the policy of protectionism in world trade. It reviews alternatives to trade restrictions, factors influencing trade policies, and implications of protection for developing countries. The paper highlights that the rise in protectionist pressures is worrisome, because the likelihood of chain reactions toward more protectionism generated by individual restrictive actions is greatest in a setting of slow economic growth and highly interdependent economies. The paper also analyzes capital utilization in the manufacturing enterprises.