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Mr. Jens R Clausen, Ms. Sharmini Coorey, Bakar Ould-Abdallah, Ms. Sònia Muñoz, and Mr. Norbert Funke
Zimbabwe has currently the highest rate of inflation in the world (an annual rate of 1,730 percent in February, 2007). The high rates of inflation have contributed to the contraction of the economy, which has declined by about 30 percent since 1999. This paper examines the stabilization experience of countries that experienced similar rates of inflation (above 1,000 percent) during 1980-2005 and draws lessons for Zimbabwe. First, with appropriate stabilization policies, the fall in inflation can be very rapid and output normally recovers within the first year or two of stabilization. Second, while reforms need to be comprehensive, a strong upfront fiscal consolidation, including elimination of quasi-fiscal activities, is a critical element of a successful stabilization program. Third, although stabilization itself can be done without significant external financing in the first year, most countries benefited from external policy advice and technical support, including from the IMF, during stabilization and from an increase in financial assistance in subsequent years.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes economic and agricultural developments, and the impact of land reforms of Zimbabwe. The paper summarizes the quantitative estimates of the fiscal burden and overall medium-term macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS on Zimbabwe. It reviews the debt restructuring, fiscal sustainability, and the vulnerabilities of Zimbabwe's banking system. It analyzes the situation of major public enterprises and the foreign exchange system in Zimbabwe. It also provides a statistical appendix for Zimbabwe.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reports economic developments in Zimbabwe during the 1990s. In 1991, the government officially launched its comprehensive Economic and Structural Adjustment Program—covering fiscal years 1991 through 1995—to strengthen growth and employment prospect. Despite the success achieved in carrying out a number of structural reforms, persistently large budget deficits presented a serious impediment to growth. The failure to bring the government budget under control was reflected in high levels of spending, which contributed to an uncompetitive exchange rate and necessitated excessive borrowing and high real interest rates.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Swaziland during 1990–96. During 1990–95, the shares of exports and imports of goods and services in GDP averaged 81 percent and 92 percent, respectively. The overall trend in economic growth continued in 1995/96. Real GDP expansion was limited to 2.5 percent, fueled by the manufacturing and services sectors. Although there was no new major investment, several established firms expanded or modernized their operations. In particular, this led to significant improvement in the performance of the wood pulp and sugar industries.
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Zimbabwe during the 1990s. The paper highlights that the path of the economy since 1990 has been dominated by the impact of the severe drought in 1992. Value added in the agricultural sector declined by 24 percent in 1992, but the impact of the drought reached much further into the economy. The recovery from the drought was led by a sharp rebound in agricultural production in 1993, which grew by 48.5 percent, boosted by an above-average harvest for maize and a recovery in tobacco production.