Africa > Zimbabwe

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 148 items for :

  • Labour; income economics x
Clear All
Rasmané Ouedraogo and Mr. David Stenzel
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns have led to a rise in gender-based violence. In this paper, we explore the economic consequences of violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa using large demographic and health survey data collected pre-pandemic. Relying on a two-stage least square method to address endogeneity, we find that an increase in the share of women subject to violence by 1 percentage point can reduce economic activities (as proxied by nightlights) by up to 8 percent. This economic cost results from a significant drop in female employment. Our results also show that violence against women is more detrimental to economic development in countries without protective laws against domestic violence, in natural resource rich countries, in countries where women are deprived of decision-making power and during economic downturns. Beyond the moral imperative, the findings highlight the importance of combating violence against women from an economic standpoint, particularly by reinforcing laws against domestic violence and strengthening women’s decision-making power.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Zimbabwe

Mr. Francesco Grigoli and Adrian Robles
The linearity of the relationship between income inequality and economic development has been long questioned. While theory provides arguments for which the shape of relationship may be positive for low levels of inequality and negative for high ones, most of the empirical literature assumes a linear specification finding conflicting results. Employing an innovative empirical approach robust to endogeneity, we find pervasive evidence of nonlinearities. In particular, similar to the debt overhang literature, we identify an inequality overhang level in that the slope of the relationship between income inequality and economic development switches from positive to negative at a net Gini of about 27 percent. We also find that in an environment characterized by widespread financial inclusion and high income concentration, rising income inequality has a larger negative impact on economic development because banks may curtail credit to customers at the lower end of the income distribution. On the positive side, a sufficiently high female labor participation can act as a shock absorber reducing such negative impact, possibly through a more efficient allocation of resources.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses recent developments, outlook, and risks related to the economy of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe’s economic difficulties have deepened. GDP growth slowed significantly to 1.1 percent in 2015, mainly because of the impact of adverse weather conditions on agricultural output, and power generation. The current account balance improved in 2015, because of lower prices for oil imports, subdued economic activity, and fiscal consolidation efforts. Fiscal performance in 2015 was better than programmed, despite the adverse macroeconomic environment. Despite spending pressures to mitigate the impact of the drought, the authorities remain committed to fiscal discipline; they target a primary cash deficit of 0.2 percent of GDP for 2016.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Context. The authorities met all their commitments under the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP), despite economic and financial difficulties. Inadequate external inflows, lower commodity prices, the dollar appreciation, and the El-Niño-induced drought hurt economic activity. The authorities have started to rationalize civil service by exploiting opportunities for cost savings, amended the Public Financial Management and Procurement Acts for Parliament and Cabinet approval, respectively, and rid the financial sector of problem banks and reduced non-performing loans. They garnered broad support for their reengagement strategy from creditors and development partners, in particular their plans to clear arrears to the International Financial Institutions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Context. The authorities met all their commitments under the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP), despite economic and financial difficulties. Inadequate external inflows, lower commodity prices, the dollar appreciation, and the El-Niño-induced drought hurt economic activity. The authorities have started to rationalize civil service by exploiting opportunities for cost savings, amended the Public Financial Management and Procurement Acts for Parliament and Cabinet approval, respectively, and rid the financial sector of problem banks and reduced non-performing loans. They garnered broad support for their reengagement strategy from creditors and development partners, in particular their plans to clear arrears to the International Financial Institutions.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Zimbabwe’s Second Review of the Staff-Monitored Program. The program is on track. Four of the five quantitative targets for end-June 2015, and all the structural benchmarks for the second review were met. Although a recently contracted $200 million nonconcessional loan breached the quantitative target on nonconcessional borrowing, it avoided the accumulation of additional external arrears. The IMF staff welcomes the authorities’ intentions to continue seeking financing through grants and loans that are as concessional as possible, and to limit contracting non-concessional loans to within the ceiling set under the program, and to prioritize investment that would eventually raise Zimbabwe’s capacity to repay.