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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Zimbabwe experienced severe exogenous shocks (cyclone Idai, protracted drought, and the COVID-19 pandemic) during 2019-20, which along with policy missteps in 2019, led to a deep recession and high inflation. Real GDP contracted cumulatively by 11.7 percent during 2019-20 and inflation reached 837 percent (y/y) by July 2020. Reflecting good rainfall and relaxation of containment measures, real GDP rose by 6.3 percent in 2021. A tighter policy stance since mid-2020 (relative to 2019) has contributed to reducing inflation to 60.7 percent (y/y) at end-2021. However, high double-digit inflation and wide parallel foreign exchange (FX) market premia persist. The economic downturn and high inflation increased the financial system vulnerabilities. Extreme poverty has risen and about a third of the population is at risk of food insecurity. The international community seeks improvements in domestic political conditions and economic policies to initiate reengagement with Zimbabwe. The authorities have started token payments to external creditors in a bid to revive international reengagement.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

1. Our Zimbabwean authorities appreciate the constructive engagement with IMF staff during the recent Article IV Consultation. They value Fund policy guidance and broadly share the staffs assessment of attendant macroeconomic challenges and key policy priorities.

Rasmané Ouedraogo and Mr. David Stenzel
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns have led to a rise in gender-based violence. In this paper, we explore the economic consequences of violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa using large demographic and health survey data collected pre-pandemic. Relying on a two-stage least square method to address endogeneity, we find that an increase in the share of women subject to violence by 1 percentage point can reduce economic activities (as proxied by nightlights) by up to 8 percent. This economic cost results from a significant drop in female employment. Our results also show that violence against women is more detrimental to economic development in countries without protective laws against domestic violence, in natural resource rich countries, in countries where women are deprived of decision-making power and during economic downturns. Beyond the moral imperative, the findings highlight the importance of combating violence against women from an economic standpoint, particularly by reinforcing laws against domestic violence and strengthening women’s decision-making power.
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
This paper discusses Zimbabwe’s Settlement of Overdue Financial Obligations to the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT), Lifting of Declaration of Noncooperation, Lifting of Restriction on IMF technical assistance, and restoration of PRGT eligibility. In light of Zimbabwe’s settlement of its overdue financial obligations to the PRGT, the IMF staff proposes that the Board remove the remaining remedial measures. Zimbabwe is eligible to return to the PRGT-eligibility list. The IMF staff also proposes that the Board lift the declaration of noncooperation, remove the remaining restriction on the provision of IMF technical assistance, and reinstate Zimbabwe as a PRGT-eligible country.
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

On October 20, 2016, Zimbabwe fully settled its overdue financial obligations to the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) using its SDR holdings.1 Zimbabwe had been in continuous arrears to the PRGT since February 2001. The authorities had been making regular monthly payments of US$0.15 million each since 2013, and four more such payments have been made since the last review of overdue financial obligations on May 2, 2016.2 As of the day of repayment, Zimbabwe's arrears to the PRGT amounted to SDR 78.3 million, which comprised overdue PRGT principal of SDR 61.7 million, and total interest obligations of SDR 16.6 million, (covering overdue interest and interest accrued through October 20, 2016 on overdue principal and interest amounts). The repayment of SDR 78.3 million has been applied towards the PRGT's Reserve Account.

Olivier Basdevant, Mr. Andrew W Jonelis, Miss Borislava Mircheva, and Mr. Slavi T Slavov
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the economies of South Africa and its neighbors (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) are tightly integrated with each other. There are important institutional linkages. Across the region there are also large flows of goods and capital, significant financial sector interconnections, as well as sizeable labor movements and associated remittance flows. These interconnections suggest that South Africa’s GDP growth rate should affect positively its neighbors’, a point we illustrate formally with the help of numerical simulations of the IMF’s GIMF model. However, our review and update of the available econometric evidence suggest that there is no strong evidence of real spillovers in the region after 1994, once global shocks are controlled for. More generally, we find no evidence of real spillovers from South Africa to the rest of the continent post-1994. We investigate the possible reasons for this lack of spillovers. Most importantly, the economies of South Africa and the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa might have de-coupled in the mid-1990s. That is when international sanctions on South Africa ended and the country re-integrated with the global economy, while growth in the rest of the continent accelerated due to a combination of domestic and external factors.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The IMF's 2009 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2009, which covers the period from May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. The print version of the Report is available in eight languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish), along with a CD-ROM (available in English only) that includes the Report text and ancillary materials, including the Fund's Financial Statements for FY2009.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The IMF's 2009 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2009, which covers the period from May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. The print version of the Report is available in eight languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish), along with a CD-ROM (available in English only) that includes the Report text and ancillary materials, including the Fund's Financial Statements for FY2009.