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Charles Vellutini and Juan Carlos Benitez
This paper presents a novel technique to measure and compare the redistributive capacity of observed tax (or transfer) policies. The technique is based on income distribution simulations and controls for differences in pre-tax income distributions. It assumes that the only information on the pre-tax distribution available in each country-year is the Gini coefficient and the mean (GDP per capita). We illustrate the technique with an application to the personal income tax, using a dataset of 108 countries over the 2007-2018 period.
Mr. Peter J. Lambert
This paper makes a new attack on the old problem of measuring horizontal inequity in the income tax. Local measures of inequality of posttax income among pretax equals are proposed, which reflect alternative value judgments about the nature and magnitude of an inequity. These measures are aggregated into global indices. The welfare gain from eliminating horizontal inequity revenue-neutrally, and the revenue gain from eliminating it welfare-neutrally, in each case preserving the vertical performance of the tax, are captured by these indices. Difficulties of implementation arising from the “identification problem” are discussed. A variation in the methodology validates banding the income data to create “close equals” groups. Simulations show that the banding procedure works well. A range of potentially fruitful applications is discussed.