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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The current area-based property tax system in Romania is inefficient, producing revenue below its potential, while the taxable value determination is inequitable and complex. Indeed, the property tax only generated 0.6 percent of GDP in 2021 vs. the average of 1.8 percent of GDP in the OECD economies, or 0.9 percent of GDP in EU-27. Meanwhile, significant scope for improving both buoyancy and efficiency of the property tax system exists, not least through the elimination of multiple exemptions, addressing the current inadequate and fragmented self-declaration system of residential buildings that translates into incomplete fiscal cadasters.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Cybersecurity risk continues to grow both in complexity and severity and is a function of an increasingly open and interconnected cyber and financial ecosystem. The South African financial system has a long history of incorporating technology and as for many financial systems across the globe, digitalization has become a strategic priority. For risk management to keep pace with the dynamic nature of cyber threats and threat agents, systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) have made substantial investments in cyber resilience programs (e.g., establishing cyber strategies, frameworks, and governance structures). Consistent with many jurisdictions, and partly a result of widespread remote working arrangements implemented in response to the global pandemic, cybersecurity threats to financial stability increased. However, high standards of risk management meant threats did not materialize into significant losses and/or disruptions.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
South Africa has made significant progress in strengthening its macroprudential policy framework and foundations since the 2014 FSAP. Institutional arrangements were overhauled by the 2017 Financial Sector Regulations Act that, among others, introduced the current ‘Twin Peaks’ structure, provided SARB with a strong financial stability mandate, and sought to foster interagency coordination and collaboration (including via the establishment of the Financial System Council of Regulators. As a result, South Africa has a hybrid macroprudential policy framework that combines a ‘strong’ decision maker in the SARB Governor, but that is importantly supported by an advisory committee structure, fostering effective cooperation and coordination. Systemic risk monitoring has also been enhanced and some macroprudential policy tools phased-in.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The implementation of a twin peaks model represents a significant change to the South African financial supervisory architecture. The Prudential Authority (PA), operating within the administration of the South African Reserve Bank (SARB), is responsible for promoting and enhancing the safety and soundness of financial institutions that provide financial products and securities services. A separate authority, the Financial Sector Conduct Authority2 (FSCA), is responsible for market conduct regulation and supervision. The introduction of the twin peaks architecture was motivated by a need to increase the robustness of the financial sector regulatory and supervisory system, reinforce financial stability, improve protection of customers, and enhance cooperation among the regulators.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note sets out the findings and recommendations of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for South Africa on financial safety net and crisis-management arrangements. It primarily focuses on the arrangements for early intervention, recovery, resolution, and financial safety nets for banks in South Africa. To a lesser extent, the note also addresses issues relating to recovery and resolution applicable to insurers and Financial Market Infrastructure (FMI).
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The South African financial markets are the most developed and liquid in Africa and well developed by global standards, as well, reflecting credible and independent policy making, a diverse economy and strong financial institutions. Foreign exchange market turnover is consistently among the top 20 in the world according to the Bank for International Settlement (BIS) triennial survey. The government bond and interest rate swap yield curves go out to 20 years. The size of the domestic bond market is around 85 percent of GDP, and stock market capitalization is about 300 percent of the GDP. Supporting financial market infrastructure is broadly adequate for the size and turnover of the markets. The central bank (SARB) operates independently and at a high capacity, providing a sound footing for market functioning.