This Selected Issues paper on Samoa reviews limitations to the existing framework of monetary policy, and suggests ways to improve its effectiveness. It examines current instruments at the disposal of the central bank to conduct monetary policy, before showing why monetary policy execution can be sometimes difficult. It also shows that such problems are not uncommon in economies with shallow financial markets. The paper also takes stock of developments since the early 1990s, and asks what major impediments to sustained private development remain.
This Selected Issues paper focuses on the reasons for the historically weak performance of Vanuatu. Among the key factors, growth has been hindered by substantial barriers to private sector development. Impediments include political uncertainty, high costs of doing business, poor and costly infrastructure, incomplete secured transactions framework, and weak land and property rights. Although these problems are not uncommon in the Pacific island region, Vanuatu’s progress in these structural reforms has been particularly slow, deterring foreign investment and reducing external competitiveness.
The most salient trend in monetary policy over the past two decades has been increasing reliance on money market operations, which reflects the belief that allowing market forces to allocate financial resources brings about increased economic efficiency and growth. However, small economies and countries with undeveloped financial markets have found that a lack of competition in their financial markets complicates their efforts to rely on money market operations, at times forcing them to rely instead on direct instruments or moral suasion. In some larger countries, the shift toward a reliance on money market operations has been gradual and, at times, fraught with difficulty. This report draws on a variety of country experiences to analyze the reasons for such difficulties and proposes a stylized sequencing of reforms that enables countries to tailor the introduction of money market operations to their particular circumstances.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes fiscal management and strategy for growth for Vanuatu. It presents an overview of recent fiscal policy and outcomes. The main structural changes in the financial sector since independence in 1980 are discussed. The paper highlights some key features common to most Pacific Island countries’ financial systems. It concludes that despite the recovery from the 1998 financial crisis, the financial system needs further reforms to promote private sector-led development in the medium term.
This paper summarizes the Detailed Assessment of Observance of Standards and Codes in the financial sector of Vanuatu in the context of the offshore financial center program. It assesses the supervision and regulation of the financial sector compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision and the International Association of Insurance Supervisors Core Principles using the Core Principles Methodology. It also assesses the elements of legal and institutional antimoney laundering and of combating the financing of terrorism.
This report assesses Vanuatu's regulatory and supervisory arrangements for the financial sector complied with internationally accepted standards and measures of good practice. It assesses all the main domestic and offshore sectors, as well as the prudential aspects of measures to combat money laundering. It also provides recommended action plans to improve compliance of the Basel Core Principles, cross-sectoral issues, and assessment of the insurance, trust company, and company service provider sectors.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix summarizes the factors explaining Vanuatu’s recent growth performance, which has weakened since the mid-1990s. The paper highlights that Vanuatu’s annual rate of growth averaged ¾ percent during 1997–2001, compared with 4¾ percent during 1992–1996. The paper compares Vanuatu’s external competitiveness with several other small island economies in the South Pacific region. The paper describes the development and structure of Vanuatu’s offshore financial center, examines its macroeconomic impact, and highlights some key recent developments. It also provides a preliminary assessment of the prospects for the sector.
This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that despite frequent shocks and an uncertain policy environment in Vanuatu, macroeconomic stability has been maintained. Real GDP growth was 2½ percent in 2000 owing to an agriculture-led recovery. However, the economy contracted by 2 percent in 2001, owing to the effects of several major cyclones and a global downturn in agriculture and tourism. Inflation remained subdued, increasing from 2½ percent in 2000 to 3¾ percent in 2001. The current account surplus declined from 2 percent of GDP in 2000 to ¾ percent in 2001.
International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department
The speeches made by officials attending the IMF–World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee at the conclusion of the meetings.