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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The current FCL arrangement for Colombia was approved in May 2020. Colombia was cited for its very strong policy frameworks—anchored by a flexible exchange rate, a credible inflation-targeting regime, effective financial sector supervision and regulation, and a structural fiscal rule—and a track record of very strong policy implementation that served as a basis for the economy’s resilience prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Colombia’s Request for an Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) and Cancellation of the Current Arrangement. Colombia has very strong policy frameworks—anchored by a flexible exchange rate, a credible inflation targeting-regime, effective financial sector supervision and regulation, and a structural fiscal rule—that have served as a basis for the economy’s resilience prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. During this time, Colombia has made remarkable efforts to integrate a substantial number of migrants from Venezuela that boosted domestic demand but widened external vulnerabilities. The new arrangement under the FCL is expected to help Colombia manage heightened external risks, protect ongoing efforts to effectively respond to the pandemic, integrate migrants, foster inclusive growth, and reduce external vulnerabilities. Despite higher external vulnerabilities, risks, and stress, the new arrangement can be maintained at the same access level because the authorities have built higher external buffers by accumulating significant additional reserves since the 2018 FCL request. The arrangement should boost market confidence, and combined with the comfortable level of international reserves, provide insurance against downside risks.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Colombia’s Review Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL). Colombia continues to have very strong economic fundamentals and institutional policy frameworks. The policy adjustment to permanently lower oil prices was timely and decisive. Tight monetary policy helped anchor inflation expectations in the face of large but temporary inflation shocks. The exchange rate continued to float. Fiscal policy tightened as prescribed by the fiscal rule, while protecting social and infrastructure spending. A structural tax reform, including a 3 percentage-point increase in the value-added tax, became effective in January 2017. The IMF staff recommends the completion of the review under the FCL arrangement for Colombia.
Ms. Dora M Iakova, Mr. Luis M. Cubeddu, Gustavo Adler, and Mr. Sebastian Sosa

Abstract

Over the past fifteen years countries in Latin America made tremendous progress in strengthening their economies and improving living standards. Although output fell temporarily during the global financial crisis, most economies staged a rapid recovery. However, economic activity across the region has been cooling off and the region is facing a more challenging period ahead. This book argues that Latin America can rise to the challenge, and policymakers in the region are already implementing reforms in education, energy, and other sectors. More is needed, and more is possible, in Latin America’s quest to continue to improve living standards.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
KEY ISSUES Context. Colombia’s economic performance has been robust, underpinned by a very strong policy framework. Last year, real GDP grew by 4.3 percent, with low inflation. The country has a strong external position; the financial system is sound; and fiscal policy remains guided by a structural fiscal balance rule. The authorities intend to undertake an ambitious infrastructure program to be executed through public-private partnerships. Outlook and risks. Real GDP growth is projected to converge to potential (about 4½ percent) in 2014, with inflation remaining within the 2–4 percent target range. The medium-term outlook is favorable, but risks are tilted to the downside. Colombia’s important and growing ties with the global economy expose the economy to external risks. The most important sources of risk are a decline in oil prices, a deterioration in global financial conditions, and volatility from the normalization of monetary policy in the U.S. Near-term policy mix. The current policy mix is broadly adequate. As the ongoing economic recovery takes hold, monetary and fiscal policies are expected to shift to a more neutral stance. Colombia continues to rely on a flexible exchange rate to absorb external shocks. The authorities are also taking advantage of abundant foreign inflows, primarily foreign direct investment, to strengthen their international reserve buffer. Medium-term challenges. Colombia’s key challenge is to sustain strong and inclusive growth with macroeconomic stability. To this purpose, it will be important to: (i) adhere to the fiscal consolidation plan, supporting it with revenue mobilization; (ii) address the infrastructure gap, without increasing fiscal risks; (iii) enhance the social security system by increasing coverage and improving equity, and containing health care costs; (iv) address remaining weaknesses in financial sector supervision; and (v) foster financial inclusion.
International Monetary Fund
The 2008 Article IV Consultation with Dominica discusses external competitiveness and key policy issues. The real effective exchange rate is broadly in line with macroeconomic fundamentals. Fiscal policy is appropriately focused on reducing high public debt. Plans for developing the tourist sector, including improving air access and roads to tourist attractions, are well advanced and should be financed with a view maintaining the sustainability of public debt. The authorities rightly emphasize improving the business climate, strengthening regulation and supervision of the financial sector, and improving disaster preparedness.
Mr. Luca A Ricci, Mr. Jonathan David Ostry, Mr. Jaewoo Lee, Mr. Alessandro Prati, and Mr. Gian M Milesi-Ferretti

Abstract

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on multilateral surveillance, macro-financial linkages, and the implications of globalization. The IMF's Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER)--formed in the mid-1990s to provide exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective--has therefore broadened its mandate to cover both key advanced economies and major emerging market economies. This Occasional Paper summarizes the methodologies that underpin the expanded analysis.

International Monetary Fund
Colombia’s economic performance has been strong, aided by sound economic policies. Structural reforms and prudent macroeconomic policy management has contributed to higher economic growth and lower inflation. Executive Directors commended the economic strategy, which has increased economic growth and international reserves and reduced unemployment and public debt ratio. Directors emphasized the need for tightening the monetary policy stance and a strong fiscal policy to achieve a “soft landing” from economic boom.. They commended the countercyclical provisioning in the banking system, and emphasized the importance of a comprehensive tax reform.
Mr. Paolo Mauro, Mr. Torbjorn I. Becker, Mr. Jonathan David Ostry, Mr. Romain Ranciere, and Mr. Olivier D Jeanne

Abstract

This paper focuses on what countries can do on their own—that is, on the role of domestic policies—with respect to country insurance. Member countries are routinely faced with a range of shocks that can contribute to higher volatility in aggregate output and, in extreme cases, to economic crises. The presence of such risks underlies a potential demand for mechanisms to soften the blow from adverse economic shocks. For all countries, the first line of defense against adverse shocks is the pursuit of sound policies. In light of the large costs experienced by emerging markets and developing countries as a result of past debt crises, fiscal policies should seek to improve sustainability, taking into account that sustainable debt levels seem to be lower in emerging and developing countries than in advanced countries. Although much can be accomplished by individual countries through sound policies, risk management, and self-insurance through reserves, collective insurance arrangements are likely to continue playing a key role in cushioning countries from the impact of shocks.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx