Western Hemisphere > Uruguay

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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU) is implementing transparency practices that are broadly aligned with the good practices for central banks (Table 1). The institution’s comprehensive communication tools and strategy underpin the commitment to transparency and its accountability for the price stability and financial system soundness mandates. In addition, the adoption of transparency among its value statements supports its mission “to contribute to the wellbeing of the society.” The BCU management wants to make further improvements in the transparency practices and envisions that by relying on its strong legal and institutional arrangements this can be achieved. Ultimately, the BCU intends to be recognized as an “independent, effective, and reliable institution with the capability to anticipate and respond to new challenges.”
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) of Mexico intends to strengthen public asset and liability management (ALM) practices. The 2018 Fiscal Transparency Evaluation (FTE) identified several gaps in reporting public sector assets and liabilities and analysis of the associated risks. The authorities have identified the need for further reforms in three interrelated areas: (i) adopt the public sector balance sheet (PSBS) analytical framework to inform policy making; (ii) move toward more active cash management; and (iii) strengthen the management of financial assets and introduce a sovereign assets and liabilities management (SALM) framework in a phased manner. This report provides recommendations for reforms in these three areas.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
At the request of the Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU), and with the support of the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF’s) Western Hemisphere Department (WHD), a monetary and financial statistics (MFS) technical assistance (TA) mission from the IMF’s Statistics Department (STA) visited Montevideo during February 3-14, 2020. The main objectives of the mission were to: (i) review available source data for other financial corporations (OFC); in particular, insurance corporations (IC), pension funds (PF), and credit administration companies (CAC); and (ii) compile standardized monetary statistics for OFC (report form SRF 4SR) in line with the 2016 Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual and Compilation Guide (MFSMCG). The officials met during the mission are listed in Appendix I.
André Amante, Phillip Anderson, Thordur Jonasson, Herman Kamil, and Mr. Michael G. Papaioannou
This paper provides an overview of the strategic and operational issues as well as institutional challenges, related to the implementation of the Sovereign Asset and Liability Management (SALM) approach. Application of an SALM framework allows the authorities to identify and monitor sovereign exposure mismatches; increase resilience to foreign currency and interest rate risks; and thus, strengthen financial stability; and implement more cost-effective management of the public-sector debt. The analysis is based on emerging market (EM) countries and illustrated by the experience of Uruguay, using data as of end-2017.
International Monetary Fund
This paper seeks Board approval of a phased migration strategy for implementing the GFSM 2001 as the standard for Fund fiscal data. The financial crisis has underscored the need for better and more comparable fiscal data, including on government assets and liabilities. In 2005, the Board endorsed the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001) and asked staff to propose a migration strategy for the Fund, based on lessons to be drawn from conducting pilot studies. The pilot studies and other tests confirmed that some aspects of the GFSM 2001 methodology (primarily relating to presentation) can be implemented by staff with relatively modest resource needs, while other aspects can proceed meaningfully only after member countries have made sufficient progress in their own fiscal reporting—including in detailed balance sheet breakdowns, and in strengthening underlying accounting systems.
Mr. Marcos R Souto and Mr. Rodolphe Blavy
The credit risk measures we develop in this paper are used to investigate macrofinancial linkages in the Mexican banking system. Domestic and external macro-financial variables are found to be closely associated with banking soundness. At the aggregate level, high external volatility and domestic interest rates are associated with higher expected default probability. Though results vary substantially across individual banks, domestic activity and U.S. growth, and higher asset prices, are generally associated with lower credit risks, while increased volatility worsens credit risks. The expected default probability is also found to be a leading indicator of traditional financial stability indicators.
Mr. Atish R. Ghosh, Mr. Juan Zalduendo, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, Mr. Jun I Kim, Ms. Uma Ramakrishnan, and Mr. Bikas Joshi


This paper examines the various roles of IMF financing in crisis prevention. Emerging market economies that experienced financial crises in the past have been subject to enormous economic and social costs, highlighting the importance of crisis prevention. While the main defense against a crisis lies in a country’s own policies and institutional framework, the IMF can contribute to these efforts through its surveillance activities, provision of technical assistance, and promotion of standards and codes. But the IMF may be able to contribute to crisis prevention more directly by providing contingent financial support. This paper explores the theoretical basis of, and empirical evidence for, possible “crisis prevention programs.”

Ms. Taryn R Parry
Latin America has experienced a resurgence in growth in recent years. However, it is also a region that has been prone to crises while growth has not delivered a significant reduction in poverty and inequality. Maintaining a strong and stable macroeconomic performance in Latin America will depend on further cuts in public debt, identification and reduction of fiscal vulnerabilities and improvements in the quality of public spending. Improvements in governance and the business environment will also aid in attracting investment. This paper draws on assessments of fiscal transparency in twelve countries in Latin America to highlight good fiscal management and improvements in fiscal transparency that might enhance the prospect for sound fiscal performance and a more favorable investment environment. This would be an important step toward sustaining stable, higher quality growth in the region.
Mr. Brad Setser, Mr. Ioannis Halikias, Mr. Alexander Pitt, Mr. Christoph B. Rosenberg, Mr. Brett E. House, Mr. Jens Nystedt, and Mr. Christian Keller


The analysis of currency and maturity mismatches in sectoral balance sheets has increasingly become a regular element in the IMF’s tool kit for surveillance in emerging market countries. This paper describes this so-called balance sheet approach and shows how it can be applied to detect vulnerabilities and shape policy advice. It also provides a broad-brushed overview of how balance sheet vulnerabilities have evolved over the past decade and cites a number of case studies.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper seeks to determine the macroeconomic effects of credit growth in Latvia. To do so, the paper relies on two approaches. First, a vector autoregressive system consisting of domestic credit, real activity, inflation, and the current account is used to determine responses to a positive shock to credit growth. It also calibrates the IMF’s Global Fiscal Model to simulate the macroeconomic effects of Latvia’s financial integration with the European Union and developing financial system. The paper also discusses the balance sheet approach to macroprudential vulnerabilities in Latvia.