This paper examines the institutional arrangements of the macro-fiscal function in 16 African countries. Most ministries of finance (MoFs) have established a macro-fiscal department or unit, but their functions, size, structure and outputs vary considerably. Based on a survey, we present data on staff size, functional scope and the forecasting performance of macro-fiscal departments and identify common challenges in the countries reviewed. Some MoFs perform many macro-fiscal functions, but actions of various kinds are needed to strengthen their macro-fiscal departments. This paper provides some guidance for policy-makers in the region for enhancing the quality and scope of macro-fiscal outputs.
Chiara Broccolini, Giulia Lotti, Alessandro Maffioli, Mr. Andrea F Presbitero, and Rodolfo Stucchi
We use loan-level data on syndicated lending to a large sample of developing countries between 1993 and 2017 to estimate the mobilization effects of multilateral development banks (MDBs), controlling for a large set of fixed effects. We find evidence of positive and significant direct and indirect mobilization effects of multilateral lending on the number of deals and on the total size of bank inflows. The number of lending banks and the average maturity of syndicated loans also increase after MDB lending. These effects are present not only on impact, but they last up to three years and are not offset by a decline in bond financing. There is no evidence of anticipation effects and the results are not driven by confounding factors, such as the presence of large global banks, Chinese lending and aid flows. Finally, the economic effects are sizable, suggesting that MBDs can play a vital role to mobilize private sector financing to achieve the goals of the 2030 Development Agenda.
This paper integrates into the Fiscal Transparency Code (FTC) a new fourth pillar (Pillar IV) on natural resource revenue management. This completes the pending update to the IMF's FTC, as set out by staff in 2014 (see IMF 2014a).
Mr. Richard I Allen, Taz Chaponda, Ms. Lesley Fisher, and Rohini Ray
More than 15 years ago, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on a program of budgetary reform, an important element of which was a medium-term budget framework (MTBF). This working paper focuses on the performance of these frameworks in six countries–– Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. It assesses the effectiveness of MTBFs in achieving improved fiscal discipline, resource allocation, and certainty of funding, as well as wider economic and social criteria such as poverty reduction and more efficient public investment. In most countries, early successes were not sustained, and budgetary outcomes did not improve, partly for technical reasons, such as poor data and inadequate forecasting methodologies, but also because the reforms were largely supply driven. The paper argues that the development of MTBFs typically falls into four distinct phases. To make the transition from one phase to the next, developing countries should focus on building their capability in macrofiscal forecasting and analysis, and in improving the credibility of the annual budget process.
This Selected Issues paper examines productivity, growth, structural reforms, and macroeconomic policies in Tanzania. Tanzania experienced macroeconomic stabilization and significant structural change over the last three decades, including two major waves of reforms, first in the mid-1980s and more importantly in the mid-1990s. Both reform waves were followed by total factor productivity (TFP) and growth spurts. Over the recent period, TFP growth decreased, which coincided with a less strong reform drive. It is suggested that a TFP-led growth model is superior and that vigorous reforms are needed to foster further structural transformation of the economy and sustain high productivity gains and investment.
This Technical Assistance report proposes a roadmap for completing the process of drafting and adopting an Integrated Legal Framework for Public Financial Management (PFM) in Zambia. The legal framework for PFM in Zambia is fragmented, and much of it is outdated. The government has prioritized a revision of the existing legal framework for PFM and national development planning. This revision will permit a range of important PFM reforms that are ongoing or planned to be incorporated within the legal framework. An updated legal framework would also permit other important improvements in current practices to be incorporated.
Mr. Paolo Mauro, Mr. Herve Joly, Mr. Ari Aisen, Mr. Emre Alper, Mr. Francois Boutin-Dufresne, Mr. Jemma Dridi, Mr. Nikoloz Gigineishvili, Mr. Tom Josephs, Ms. Clara Mira, Mr. Vimal V Thakoor, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Mr. Fan Yang
This paper takes stock of the main fiscal risks facing the EAC partner countries. These include macroeconomic shocks, and specific risks, such as the financial performance of the public enterprises, large infrastructure projects, PPPs, and pension funds. In addition, weaknesses in the institutional framework are reviewed. This analysis highlights some of the largest risks and begins to give a sense of the potential magnitudes involved.