Middle East and Central Asia > Turkmenistan

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Mr. Philipp C Rother
This paper investigates the effects of macroeconomic and structural variables on financial intermediation. To this end, it presents a theoretical foundation for two new measures of intermediation, the money multiplier and the ratio of private sector credit to monetary base. Results from panel estimations covering 19 transition economies indicate that policy makers need to address in particular the problems of bad loans on bank balance sheets and high market concentration while maintaining a stable macroeconomic environment. Further variables, such as minimum reserve requirements and the capital adequacy ratio, are found to possess less explanatory power.
Mr. Malcolm D. Knight


Since 1991, the 15 countries under review - have to varying degrees, been pursuing reforms whose broad objectives have been to achieve market-based determination of interest rates and exchange rates, manage banking system liquidity through market operations with indirect instruments, and provide the institutional underpinnings for the design and implementation of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform programs supported by the IMF. This study reviews the experience under these programs and the economic developments in the countries that undertook them.