Middle East and Central Asia > Turkmenistan

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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
Ms. Nada Mora, Ms. Ratna Sahay, Mr. Jeromin Zettelmeyer, and Mr. Pietro Garibaldi
Between 1991 and 1999, capital flows to 25 transition economies in Europe and the former Soviet Union differed widely in terms of overall levels and the share and composition of private flows. With some exceptions (notably Russia), the main form of private inflows was foreign direct investment. Portfolio investment was volatile and concentrated in a handful of countries. Regressions show that direct investment can be well explained in terms of economic fundamentals, whereas the presence of a financial market infrastructure and a property-rights indicator are the only explanatory variables that seem to have had a robust effect on portfolio investment.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Ukraine during 1996–99. Output decline continued in 1997 and 1998, especially following the August 1998 crisis in Russia. During this period, Ukraine made substantial progress in reducing inflation, mainly through the implementation of a monetary policy that aimed at keeping the exchange rate broadly stable. However, the fiscal situation remained difficult, despite a sizable adjustment in 1998. Throughout the period, economic policy was influenced by developments in international capital markets.
Mr. Luis Valdivieso


This paper discusses the significant overall progress with macro stabilization of these transition countries during 1992-1997. While average inflation declined steadily since 1992, output fell significantly for many of these countries during this period, and it was not unti 1996-97 that as a group they experienced positive growth, financial policies, the current account, competitiveness, debt-and non-debt-creating capital flows, and the initial impact of the Asian crisis.

International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in the Republic of Armenia during 1990s. The lagged effects of the more expansionary stance of late 1996, combined with real shocks in early 1997, especially poor weather, and a loss in the momentum in structural reform, particularly privatization, led to a slowdown in growth to about 3 percent during the first nine months of 1997 compared with the same period in 1996. Inflation, measured by the 12-month increase in consumer prices, rose to 23 percent by end-September 1997 from 16½ percent a year earlier.
Mr. Malcolm D. Knight


Since 1991, the 15 countries under review - have to varying degrees, been pursuing reforms whose broad objectives have been to achieve market-based determination of interest rates and exchange rates, manage banking system liquidity through market operations with indirect instruments, and provide the institutional underpinnings for the design and implementation of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform programs supported by the IMF. This study reviews the experience under these programs and the economic developments in the countries that undertook them.