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Mr. Alexei P Kireyev

Abstract

The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) has a long and varied history, and this book examines how the WAEMU can achieve its development and stability objectives, improve the livelihood of its people, and enhance the inclusiveness of its economic growth, all while preserving its financial stability, enhancing its competitiveness, and maintaining its current fixed exchange rates.

Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, and Ms. Gabriela Inchauste

Abstract

Fiscal policy can foster growth and human development through a number of different channels. These include the macroeconomic (for example, through the influence of the budget deficit on growth) as well as the microeconomic (through its influence on the efficiency of resource use). But how precisely do these channels work in developing countries? What kinds of tax and expenditure policies should developing countries implement to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals? And how can international aid be made more effective? Drawing on both theory and country experience, this book brings together IMF research on the various ways fiscal policy can be used to help spur economic development.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

Following a serious deterioration of the competitive position of the WAEMU region in the 1980s and the eary 1990s, the countries took steps that have led to a significant turnaround in economic activity, a drop in inflation, and increases in output, exports and investment. This study describes policy issues that the region continues to face and suggests how the WAEMU countries can address them.

Mr. Jorge P. Guzmán and Mr. Michael G. Kuhn

Abstract

This paper reviews trends in official debt rescheduling and recent experience with debt renegotiations in the face of the persistent problems of heavily indebted developing countries.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This chapter discusses the changes that have taken place in the underlying structural relationships determining government expenditures between 1975 and 1986. The paper describes the methodological problems in analyzing the determinants of government expenditure patterns, and the issues involved in making cross-country expenditure comparisons, and the problems confronting country economists in assessing a country's expenditure profile. The Tait-Heller study concluded that the international expenditure comparison (IEC) framework provided a “starting point” for analysis. In many respects, this conclusion would still appear valid; if anything, the issues associated with using the IEC indices have become more rather than less complex. Data limitations also pose a limiting factor on the usefulness of an analysis of the IEC indices of a country, and even more strongly suggest its use only as complementary to more detailed sectoral and economic analyses of expenditure profiles. The results for the developing countries in the European region are almost identical to those observed in Africa, with the key exception being an increased priority for expenditure on social security and welfare and a decline in the priority attached to education.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper describes developments in multilateral official debt renegotiations over the 18 months through December 1987. The most important new departure in multilateral official debt renegotiations was the adaptation of policies by Paris Club creditors in response to the protracted problems of the poorest and most heavily indebted countries at the same time that other initiatives were launched for low-income countries, including the proposal for enhancement of the IMF’s structural adjustment facility. Official creditors have generally preserved concessional interest rates in the restructuring of official development assistance (ODA) loans; moreover, for the poorest debtors, some creditors have converted such loans into grants. The question of interest concessions on other categories of debts rescheduled by the Paris Club was raised, inter alia, by the Venice summit but no consensus exists among creditors for changing the current practice. By regularly excluding short-term debt from reschedulings, debtors and creditors have also frequently succeeded in protecting the flow of short-term trade financing, which is often vital to the financing of an IMF-supported program.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper describes developments in multilateral official debt renegotiations over the 18 months up to the end of June 1986. To facilitate the return to normal market access for countries considered to have made substantial progress in their adjustment efforts, official creditors recently concluded multiyear rescheduling agreements (MYRAs) with both Ecuador and Cote d'Ivoire. Official creditors have also indicated that they were prepared to grant an extended consolidation period for Yugoslavia, although in this case a further meeting would be necessary to agree on the terms for the second stage of the rescheduling. The tendency toward increased differentiation in terms according to the circumstances of the debtor country, already apparent in 1983–1984, has been carried further during the last 18 months. Indeed, the rescheduling agreements concluded during this recent period tend to fall fairly clearly into two very different groups. Official multilateral debt renegotiations deal with the rescheduling of debt service payments on loans extended by, or guaranteed by, the governments or the official agencies of the participating creditor countries.

Rattan J. Bhatia

Abstract

Until 1984, the West African Monetary Union (WAMU) consisted of six West African countries- Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Mali withdrew from the Union in 1961 and rejoined in 1984; it is therefore excluded from this analysis, which deals with a period when it was not a member.)