Ms. Magda E. Kandil, Mrs. Genevieve M Lindow, Mr. Mario Mansilla, Mr. Joel Chiedu Okwuokei, Jochen M. Schmittmann, Qiaoe Chen, Xin Li, Marika Santoro, and Solomon Stavis
The paper examines the determinants of employment growth, drawing on data available across a sample of Caribbean countries. To that end, the paper analyzes estimates of the employment-output elasticity and the response of employment growth to major sources of labor market determinants, in the long and short run. The main determinants of employment include government investment and private sector credit, while the major determinants of external performance are real effective exchange rate, the price of major exporting commodities, the number of tourists, and growth in major trading partners. The paper concludes with a menu of policy recommendations and structural reforms towards sustaining high employment growth and higher living standards in the Caribbean.
Judith Gold, Mr. Ruben V Atoyan, and Miss Cornelia Staritz
After a period of exceptionally strong economic performance, Guyana's growth has stagnated since 1998. The paper tries to identify the factors that can explain this dramatic deterioration in economic performance. The paper first attempts to explain the decline of growth with a growth accounting exercise which shows that there was a significant swing in total factor productivity, and than uses a panel regression framework to analyze the growth impact of changes in various factors. Finally, through a series of cross-country exercises, the paper shows that the primary reasons for the divergence between the economic performance of Guyana and other Caribbean, HIPC, and PRGF-eligible countries in 1998-2004 are a substantial decline in share of net foreign and private domestic investment in GDP, a decline in the labor force, and a less favorable political and institutional environment.
This Selected Issues paper for Suriname describes the structure of the financial system, and provides a preliminary assessment of the conditions of the banking system. It highlights the need for a comprehensive public sector reform, targeting both the civil service and the public enterprises, and reviews the recent policy developments and financial sector reforms. It also provides the IMF's projections and estimates for Suriname on central government operations in percent of GDP; central government revenues, grants, and expenditure in billions of guilders and in percent of GDP; summary accounts of the banking system, and so on.
Suriname's mining-based economy has suffered from poor macroeconomic management. Executive Directors commended the authorities' efforts to stabilize the economic, fiscal, and monetary policies stances, and emphasized the need to accelerate structural reforms. They stressed the need for fiscal consolidation, exchange rate unification, economic diversification, and improvements in governance and tax administration. They welcomed the authorities' decision to subscribe to the General Data Dissemination System, and encouraged them to continue to take full advantage of the technical assistance being provided by the IMF and the Inter-American Development Bank.
Suriname recently went through a period of destabilizationthat that bordered on hyperinflation. The country’s experience provides a good illustration to study the genesis and dynamics of high inflation and includes some unusual phenomena, such as a monetary overhang, an eight-tiered exchange rate, and inflationary gold purchases by the central bank. High inflation also had a significant impact on the real economy. This paper compares the experience of Suriname with other countries discussed in the recent stabilization literature. It finds strong evidence of intertemporal demand effects, which occurred as the public reacted to the temporary bout of high inflation.
This paper discusses the implications for credit policy of changes in the income velocity of money; it neglects other policy elements of financial programs unless they have a direct bearing on velocity changes. Control over credit expansion by domestic banks is used to influence expenditure decisions, since the availability of credit has a strong impact on expenditures on domestic and foreign goods and services and, possibly, on net capital flows and, therefore, on the balance of payments. The paper also describes some relationships between monetary and national income accounts in order to identify the changes in velocity that must be considered in determining credit policies. The relevance of incorporating lags into the demand for money function has been mentioned earlier. Lags in the formation of expectations within a country usually can be expected to change only slowly over time and, therefore, can be assumed constant in the estimation of the demand for money function.