Social Science > Poverty and Homelessness

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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Joint Staff Advisory Note on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses that Somalia has made noteworthy progress since 2012 to recover from decades of conflict and state fragmentation. The country has succeeded in rebuilding core state capabilities and organized two democratic national elections in 2012 and 2017. Somalia has now reached the stage where it seeks to fully reengage the international community and is requesting debt relief through the heavily indebted poor countries initiative. The authorities developed the Ninth National Development Plan (NPD9) through a highly consultative, participatory process that ensured full country ownership. The macroeconomic policy objectives of NDP9 are to promote economic growth in an environment of low inflation, sustainable fiscal and current account balances, and healthy foreign exchange reserves. The IMF staff recommends updating framework to incorporate greater support for poverty reduction and additional financing from development partners during the interim period. The IMF staff supports the authorities’ commitment to issuing new Somali shilling banknotes, while maintaining de facto dollarization.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper focuses on macro-critical issues related to governance and corruption in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Third-party indicators suggest that governance has been poor and corruption widespread in the country. Conducting an audit of the civil service and improving the transparency of its remuneration system, simplifying tax payment processes, and merging the activities of the numerous revenue agencies would boost public efficiency and improve the business environment. Contract enforcement and protection of property rights could be enhanced by insulating the courts from external influence. Limited information on the budget annexes and special accounts and little or no oversight by the central government, Parliament, and civil society, create scope for corruption. The multiplicity of special taxes and fees, some accruing to special accounts outside the Treasury, generate opportunities for corruption and informalization of economic activity. Despite some progress in strengthening public financial management, budget execution remains deficient. The government has formalized the four stages of the expenditure chain and introduced budget commitment plans to align expenditures with revenues.
Mr. Kurt Annen and Mr. Luc Moers
This paper shows that donors that maximize relative aid impact spread their budgets across many recipient countries in a unique Nash equilibrium, explaining aid fragmentation. This equilibrium may be inefficient even without fixed costs, and the inefficiency increases in the equality of donors budgets. The paper presents empirical evidence consistent with theoretical results. These imply that, short of ending donors maximization of relative aid impact, agreements to better coordinate aid allocations are not implementable. Moreover, since policies to increase donor competition in terms of aid effectiveness risk reinforcing relativeness, they may well backfire, as any such reinforcement increases aid fragmentation.
International Monetary Fund
In this study, the ex post assessment (EPA) of longer program engagement with Mauritania is discussed. From this program, macroeconomic stability has been achieved. EPAs are intended to provide an opportunity to step back from continuing program relations to consider an analysis of the economic problems facing the country, review progress under IMF-supported programs, and draw forward-looking lessons for future IMF engagement. The newly designed poverty reduction strategy and ECF-supported program addresses the challenges identified by the EPA.
International Monetary Fund
The main drivers of economic growth in Armenia were the construction and service sectors. The global economic crisis resulted in a substantial change in the structure of the economy. The drastic decline in the volume of foreign financing prejudice the continuation of rapid economic growth in the medium term and point to the need for incentives for exports and diversification, as well as encouraging of high-quality job openings and high levels of productivity. Reforms are needed in the key sectors of agriculture and infrastructure.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the First Annual Report (2008/09) on the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS). The economic and security situation was particularly challenging during the first year of ANDS implementation (1387 or 2008/09) owing to rapid increases in food and fuel prices and sharply increased violence in some provinces. Both imports and exports have been increasing at high rates. A major concern continues to be slow progress in meeting revenue targets and the ability to effectively control spending.
International Monetary Fund
Falling international prices have helped lower Haiti’s inflation, but base money growth has continued to be higher than targeted in the program. The paper discusses Haiti’s Annual Progress Report on Implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. In the area of economic governance, recent advances have been made to increase transparency and efficiency in the use of public resources and external assistance. These include changes in the legal framework for budget formulation and execution, the setting up of critical institutions and agencies, and efforts to disseminate basic information.
International Monetary Fund
This Joint Staff Advisory Note presents key findings of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report for the Republic of Mozambique. The government of Mozambique is committed to its medium-term fiscal strategy to make room for private sector credit by avoiding recourse to domestic financing. The government has made large domestic debt repayments since 2002. The IMF staff welcomes the broad coverage of macroeconomic developments in 2007 and the assessment of performance against targets laid out in the government’s Economic and Social Plan for 2007.