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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper analyzes banking sector developments in Myanmar. It highlights that latent banking sector risks are surfacing, following a period of rapid credit growth and as banks adjust to updated financial regulations. Over time banks will need to enhance their credit risk management, and reduce the over-reliance on collateral values to safeguard lending. A banking system action plan has been developed, to enhance the banking system’s resilience, as well as strengthen the supervisory and resolution framework. The ongoing overhaul of the prudential framework and financial sector reforms will strengthen the banking sector and its role in supporting the economy.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper reviews Uruguay’s experience with inclusive growth over the last two decades, and identifies challenges and policy options to promote greater equality going forward. Uruguay has a long history of high living standards comparable to many developed countries, and has made further progress in improving social conditions since 2005 on the back of strong economic growth and active social policies. Looking ahead, preserving macroeconomic stability is essential to sustain these gains. For the longer term, improving access to quality education will be the key to enhance social mobility.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) in Liberia. Liberia’s PRS articulates the government’s overall vision and major strategies for moving toward rapid, inclusive, and sustainable growth and development during the period 2008–11. This paper provides the context for the PRS by describing the conflict and economic collapse, the transition beyond conflict, and the initial progress achieved during the past two years. It stresses that Liberia must create much greater economic and political opportunities for all its citizens and ensure that growth and development are widely shared.
International Monetary Fund
According to the national household survey conducted during the summer and autumn of 2005, poverty in Afghanistan (headcount rate) is about 33 percent. Economic performance since the fall of the Taliban regime has been strong, and macroeconomic stability has been maintained. During 2002–03 through 2006–07, real GDP growth has averaged 15 percent per year, reflecting a recovery in agriculture, donor-funded postwar reconstruction, and initial yet promising growth of a range of private sector activities. The macroeconomic policy framework is broadly in line with the authorities’ economic program.
Mr. Christian H. Beddies, Mr. Enrique A Gelbard, Mr. James McHugh, Ms. Laure Redifer, and Mr. Garbis Iradian


Since 2000, Armenia's economic performance has been remarkable. Real economic growth has averaged 11 percent a year, annual inflation has averaged 3 percent, and poverty and inequality have fallen. The country has outperformed other low-income countries including other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. This is particularly impressive given the geographical location of Armenia, the closure of two critical borders, and occasional political turmoil. The key factors behind Armenia's economic performance are prudent monetary and fiscal policies, liberal trade and foreign exchange regimes, rapid and relaively well-sequenced structural reforms, and support from the Armenian diaspora. In addition, the implementation of a poverty reduction strategy since 2002 has complemented the effect of economic growth on reducing poverty. This book assesses the country's economic transformation during the last 10 years and discusses the challenges to sustaining these successes.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines Bangladesh’s nonfinancial state-owned enterprises. The paper argues that, given the overall policy environment and external vulnerabilities, the usefulness of the fixed exchange rate system in Bangladesh has run its course. Greater exchange rate flexibility is needed to ensure that the exchange rate sends appropriate market signals, and to enhance the authorities’ ability to address more effectively and timely both domestic imbalances and external real shocks arising from a rapidly changing global environment. The paper also outlines the structure and recent performance of the commercial banking sector.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Annex for Mali examines recent economic developments in Mali. The paper highlights that since the early 1990s, Mali has made appreciable progress in reducing macroeconomic imbalances and liberalizing the economy. This has been made possible by consolidating the government fiscal position, lowering inflation, dismantling public monopolies, abolishing price controls, liberalizing the trade regime, and allowing for a greater role for private sector initiative. However, the pace of the country’s development remains constrained by a low level of human capital, inadequate infrastructure, and high energy and telecommunications costs.
International Monetary Fund
India rebounded strongly from its 1991 balance-of-payments crisis, aided by structural reforms and other policy adjustments. The government has sought to reinvigorate the process of structural and fiscal reform. The paper examines trends in interstate differences in rural poverty; reviews India's postal saving system and possible reform issues; describes and evaluates the current system of pensions and provident funds, and discusses reform options. The paper also briefly reviews the structure of and recent developments in the Indian foreign exchange market.
International Monetary Fund
The paper describes recent macroeconomic and financial developments and highlights a number of important medium- and longer-term policy issues. Empirical estimates of potential output growth for the Kyrgyz economy based on a number of different methodologies are presented. Competitiveness and trade policy, social policy issues, namely poverty alleviation and pension reform, are also taken up for discussion. Developments in the banking system since 1998 are described. Fiscal issues are discussed and also statistical data on economic indices are presented.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper describes the need to broaden the agenda for poverty reduction. The broadening of the agenda follows from a growing understanding that poverty is more than low income, a lack of education, and poor health. The poor are frequently powerless to influence the social and economic factors that determine their well being. The paper highlights that a broader definition of poverty requires a broader set of actions to fight it and increases the challenge of measuring poverty and comparing achievement across countries and over time.