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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Drawing on recent examples of corruption in the Baltics and former Soviet Union, this pamphlet analyzes the links between governance and corruption, and emphasizes the high economic cost that corruption exacts. The pamphlet outlines how the IMF is working with the countries of the former Soviet Union to curb corruption, and put in place the regulatory and legal changes needed to support good government.

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examina el papel de la economía sumergida, o economía subterránea. Analiza la forma de medirla, la relación entre la economía sumergida y la economía formal, las razones por las cuales está creciendo en tamaño, y sus efectos en el crecimiento económico general. ¿Cómo pueden los Estados medir la economía sumergida, y es importante su existencia?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Ce document examine le rôle de l'économie de l'ombre, ou économie souterraine. Elle aborde les moyens d'en mesurer l'ampleur, les liens entre l'économie souterraine et l'économie officielle, les raisons de sa croissance, et ses effets sur la croissance économique globale. Comment les États peuvent-ils limiter la taille de l'économie souterraine, et son existence pose-t-elle problème ?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

In some countries, corrupt politicians appear to choose investment projects based on the opportunity for bribes and kickbacks these projectspresent. This paper contends that such corruption increases the numberof capital projects undertaken and trends to enlarge their size andcomplexity. The result is that, paradoxically, some public investmentcan end up reducing a country's growth.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This pamphlet focuses exclusively on corrupt public practices. It liststhe potential causes and consequences of public corruption and presentsrecent evidence on the extent to which corruption affects investment,economic growth, and government expenditure choices. The evidence presented here suggests that corruption may have considerable adverseeffects on economic growth by reducing private investment and perhaps byworsening the composition of public expenditure.