Africa > Senegal

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Mr. Gilles Montagnat-Rentier and Mr. Gilles Parent
This paper outlines reforms that have been achieved in the modernization of the customs administrations of francophone sub-Saharan (African) countries since the mid-1990s. It also highlights the remaining issues in this process. Progress has been made in the automation of operations and procedures, with constant and significant efforts to strengthen revenue collection and improve trade facilitation in a number of countries. However, the pace and scope of modernization remains insufficient, particularly in developing customs control and enforcement capacities, and enhancing operational resources and management. The findings suggest that the authorities’ strong commitment to reform, organizational and management changes, adequate technical assistance and project management, and effective implementation of modern customs standards, are critical to accelerate the modernization of customs in francophone sub-Saharan Africa.  
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix for The Gambia underlies that the exchange rate is broadly in line with fundamentals, although data weaknesses and uncertainties prevent a definitive assessment. The Gambia’s current account deficit is higher than economic fundamentals would predict, and a depreciation of 11 percent would be needed to restore sustainability. The external sustainability approach suggests that 4–6 percent depreciation is needed for the current account deficit to be consistent with constant net foreign assets as a share of GDP.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes Senegal’s real effective exchange rate (REER) and external competitiveness. A REER significantly above its equilibrium, as determined by economic fundamentals, can impede a country’s external competitiveness, calling for corrective macroeconomic measures. This paper finds no conclusive evidence of a REER overvaluation, implying that structural reforms are key to improving Senegal’s external competitiveness. The paper also describes Senegal’s export performance, developments of the REER, and an empirical analysis of the equilibrium REER. Structural measures of competitiveness are also illustrated.
Mr. Lubin Kobla Doe
This paper examines the reform of the external tariff initiated by the CEMAC and the WAEMU that is aimed at reinforcing their economic integration. Overall, there is broad compliance with the streamlined and moderate rates, but with significant deviations from the harmonized paths in several countries. WAMZ countries, except Ghana, need to undertake major reforms in order to align their external tariff structures with that of the WAEMU as planned for 2007. To promote full compliance with the harmonized external tariff policies, the paper suggests, measures need to be taken, including the creation of financial incentives, at the regional and country levels.
Dorothy Engmann, Mr. Ousmane Dore, and Benoít Anne
This paper evaluates the impact of the sociopolitical crisis in Côte d'Ivoire on the economies of its neighbors. Using a nonsubjective weighted index of regional instability in cross-country time-series regressions, it shows that the increase in regional instability caused by domestic instability in Côte d'Ivoire had a negative effect on the growth performance of its most direct neighbors, but no significant effect on the subregion as a whole including the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). The paper also examines the channels through which such spillover effects took place.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The papers in this volume address three important issues: the role ofexchange-rate policy in enhancing the competitiveness of African manufactured exports; the steps that can be taken to improve production efficiency; and the role of institutional and structural reforms in promoting competitiveness in manufacturing and in improving Africa's attractiveness to foreign direct investment. An epilogue evaluates progress and developments since the conference that gave rise to this volume was held.

International Monetary Fund
Public consumption has declined from 12 percent of GDP in 1996 to 10.8 percent in 1999 owing to fiscal consolidation: wage increases are moderate, and other current expenditures have grown slowly. Conversely, private consumption has increased from 75.2 percent of GDP in 1996 to 76.9 percent in 1998, and is estimated to have reached 76.6 percent in 1999. Public investment has increased from 6.4 percent of GDP in 1996 to 7.2 percent of GDP in 1998 and is estimated to have reached 8.2 percent of GDP in 1999, whereas private investment has experienced a downward slide.
Mr. Reint Gropp, Mr. Liam P. Ebrill, and Ms. Janet Gale Stotsky

Abstract

The apparent contradiction between trade liberalization and continuing high trade tax revenue raises the important question of how, precisely, the one affects the other. Although policymakers generally recognize the long-term benefits of trade liberalization, some have argued for at least a slower pace, in part because of revenue concerns. This paper seeks to address these issues in three complimentary ways: through an overview of the factors that may have a bearing on the question, through a review of trends in trade tax revenue both globally and in selected countries, and through econometric analysis.

Abstract

Edited by Zubair Iqbal and Mohsin Khan, this volume is a collection of papers given at a seminar on trade issues in Africa, conducted by the IMF nad the African Economic Research Consortium. It represents the views of government officials, academics, and representatives from multilateral and regional agencies on issues relating to trade reform and regionalism in Africa. Issues include the role of trade liberalization in promoting sustained growth, interdependence of trade and macroeconomic policies, impediments to effective trade reforms, the steps needed to accelerate trade reform, and the importance of regional interaction.

International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in The Gambia during 1990–95. Economic activity slowed down in 1993/94 and contracted by at least 4 percent in real terms in 1994/95. With the drop in re-export trade and the disruption of the tourist season, domestic government revenues declined by more than 4 percent of GDP during 1993/94–1994/95; foreign grants fell by an additional 2 percent of GDP, owing to the suspension of balance-of-payments assistance following the military coup.