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William Joseph Crandall, Elizabeth Gavin, and Mr. Andrew R Masters
This paper presents the results of the International Survey on Revenue Administration (ISORA) deployed during 2016 and covering fiscal years 2014 and 2015. It is made possible by the participation of 135 tax administrations from around the world that provided data.
International Monetary Fund
Global growth remains strong. The recovery has created jobs and increased incomes. But growth momentum is moderating. Previously identified risks have partly materialized or have become more pronounced. A rapid reversal in financial market conditions, ten years after the global financial crisis, could again expose debt vulnerabilities at a time when many countries have more limited policy space. The window of opportunity to guard against risks and raise medium-term growth prospects is narrowing. Now is the time for policymakers to act to rebuild policy space, strengthen resilience, and implement structural reforms for the benefit of all. Waning support for multilateralism is fueling policy uncertainty. However, improved global cooperation is precisely what is needed to boost inclusive growth by modernizing the trade system, reducing excess global imbalances, improving debt dynamics, and leveraging technology. We will continue to review our policies and strategies to enhance Fund advice and support multilateralism. This includes surveillance, program conditionality, capacity development, debt limits, and anti-money laundering and the combatting of terrorism financing.
International Monetary Fund
For the net administrative budget, the FY 16–18 medium-term budget (MTB) proposal includes: In FY 16, an unchanged budget envelope in real terms, for the fourth year in a row. To accommodate new and ongoing strategic priorities of the Fund within a flat envelope, efforts to reallocate resources away from lower-priority activities and achieve efficiency gains were stepped up both at the departmental level and across the institution. Savings measures implying a reallocation of resources of close to 5 percent of the net administrative budget were identified through this process. The bulk of these savings would be used to help meet the new priorities highlighted in the Global Policy Agenda and in Management’s Key Goals, while preserving room at the departmental level to further reduce work pressures, phase in the new streamlining measures and, more generally, cope with business uncertainties and unanticipated demands. This robust prioritization effort implies difficult trade-offs and the willingness to cut lower-priority activities in order to create space for new initiatives. For FY 17–18, as a baseline assumption, a flat real budget envelope as well. Against the backdrop of a robust income position, the Fund’s medium-term budget formulation is guided primarily by considerations of prudence and credibility. The medium-term spending path will depend on new demands placed on the institution, and the scope for further reprioritization, and will be reassessed in the context of the FY 17–19 budget.
International Monetary Fund
New commitments under PRGT-supported programs amounted to SDR 0.15 billion in 2013, while disbursements on existing arrangements amounted to about SDR 0.8 billion. However, this lower demand is expected to be temporary. New commitments are projected to rebound to about SDR 1.5 billion in 2014, similar to the level observed in 2012. These projections are subject to considerable uncertainty regarding progress on ongoing program negotiations.
Mr. Alun H. Thomas and Mr. Juan P Trevino
High natural resource prices in recent years have resulted in sizeable increases in fiscal revenue for many resource-exporting countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, this revenue source is volatile, and arguably these countries should also rely on other forms of taxation to help fund public expenditure. This paper asks whether the availability of higher resource revenue in these countries has led to lower taxation effort of other revenue categories. The question is analyzed both in terms of the relationship between non-resource tax revenue and resource revenue, and between non-resource tax revenue and statutory tax rates. The paper finds evidence suggesting that nonresource revenue is negatively influenced by a higher resource revenue-to-GDP ratio. The lower take up of nonresource taxes in resource-rich countries is correlated with higher levels of corruption in these countries, suggesting weaker institutions affect nonresource revenue through incentives for tax evasion and/or large tax exemptions as argued in the literature.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides a semi-annual review of the status of financing for PRGF-ESF lending, subsidization of emergency assistance, and HIPC and MDRI debt relief. The last review was completed by the Executive Board on September 24, 2008. The paper does not address the G-20’s recent call for additional concessional resources, which is discussed in a separate paper.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides a semi-annual review of the status of financing for PRGFESF lending, HIPC and MDRI debt relief, and an update on the mobilization of resources for the subsidization of emergency assistance to PRGF-eligible countries. The last review was completed by the Executive Board on September 26, 2007.
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides a semi-annual review of the status of financing for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility-Exogenous Shocks Facility (PRGF-ESF) lending, subsidization of emergency assistance to PRGF-eligible countries, and Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) debt relief. The last review was completed by the IMF Executive Board on April 21, 2008.
International Monetary Fund
This report reviews the work of the Fund since the 2007 Spring Meetings and the priorities for the period ahead. Progress has been made in the past few months with respect to the framework for surveillance and its implementation, quota and voice, and the Fund’s income model. Other key aspects of the MTS have also advanced, including with regard to Bank-Fund collaboration and the Fund’s role in low-income countries. Future work will focus on completion of the quota and voice reform, reaching agreement on the Fund’s new income model, and delivering budgetary restraint, as well as addressing the evolving challenges facing the Fund and the world economy, notably the financial market turbulence and financial globalization. The paper reports on recent developments in the global economy (Section II) and progress in the following key areas: reshaping surveillance (Section III); emerging market economies and crisis prevention (Section IV); the role of the Fund in low-income countries (Section V); quota and voice issues (Section VI), building institutions and capacity (Section VII); and managing an effective institution (Section VIII).