Europe > Sweden

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Type: Journal Issue x
  • Money supply x
Clear All Modify Search
Eric Monnet and Mr. Damien Puy
Why did monetary authorities hold large gold reserves under Bretton Woods (1944–1971) when only the US had to? We argue that gold holdings were driven by institutional memory and persistent habits of central bankers. Countries continued to back currency in circulation with gold reserves, following rules of the pre-WWII gold standard. The longer an institution spent in the gold standard (and the older the policymakers), the stronger the correlation between gold reserves and currency. Since dollars and gold were not perfect substitutes, the Bretton Woods system never worked as expected. Even after radical institutional change, history still shapes the decisions of policymakers.
Mr. Alexei P Kireyev
The paper presents a simple framework for the analysis of the macroeconomic implications of de-cashing. Defined as replacing paper currency with convertible deposits, de-cashing would affect all key macroeconomic sectors. The overall macreconomic impact of de-cashing would depend on the balance of growth-enhancing and growth-constraining factors. Starting from a traditional saving-investment balance, the paper develops a four-sector macroeconomic framework. It is purely illustrative and is designed to provide a roadmap for a systematic evaluation of de-cashing. The framework is disaggregated into the real, fiscal, monetary, and external sectors and potential implications of de-cashing are then identified in each sector. Finally, the paper draws a balance on possible positive and negative macroeconomic implications of de-cashing, and proposes policies capable of augmenting its economic and social benefits, while reducing potential costs.
Hesham Alogeel and Maher Hasan
This paper investigates the factors that affect inflation in the GCC region by examining the inflationary processes in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The paper utilizes a model that accounts for foreign factors affecting inflation, such as trading partners' inflation and exchange rate pass-through effect, as well as domestic influences. The analysis concludes that, in the long run, higher inflation in trading partners' countries is the main driving force for inflation in the two countries, with significant but lower contributions from the exchange rate pass-through effect and oil prices. Demand and money supply shocks affect inflation in the short run.
Mr. John Cady and Mr. Anthony J. Pellechio
Data published in IMF country staff reports and International Financial Statistics (IFS) may differ for identical variables and, at times, users may be unaware of the reasons for these differences and lack the information needed to permit reconciliation. Such discrepancies stem principally from differences in the objectives of IMF country staff reports and their data requirements, on the one hand, and IFS, on the other. This paper presents the results of a study of the consistency of annual data on core statistical indicators required for Fund surveillance presented in the IMF's IFS and a sample of recently published Article IV consultation reports. The paper finds a significant incidence of apparent discrepancies for similarly defined variables.
Mr. Alain Ize, Mr. Arto Kovanen, and Timo Henckel
Given the rapidly declining demand for central bank reserves and their gradual replacement in wholesale payments by alternative forms of money—clearinghouse moneyand treasury money—this paper discusses whether the complete extinction of base money could undermine monetary control. It argues that such concerns are misplaced since central banks can target interest rates and inflation even in the absence of base money. The paper explores implications for current and future central banking, including monetary and foreign exchange operations, lender of last resort, coordination between public debt and monetary management, and design of operating rules in currency boards.
Mr. Willy A Hoffmaister
The revised Bank of Korea Act states that the primary goal of monetary policy is price stability, suggesting that monetary policy will move toward an inflation-targeting framework. The paper explores some of the practical aspects of this move, including such issues as the predictability of inflation, the definition of the price index, the inflation target’s time horizon, and the width of the inflation-target bands. On balance, the empirical evidence suggests that Korea is likely to be successful in adopting an inflation-targeting framework over the medium term.
Mr. Ramana Ramaswamy
This paper discusses how the size of the monetary union in Europe can influence the choice of the monetary framework. The main conjecture is that the European Central Bank ought to target inflation if monetary union is confined to a “core” group of countries. However, the decision on whether to target inflation or monetary aggregates is not an unambiguous one if monetary union is EU-wide; the choice of the framework will depend on the type of shocks that are likely to prevail. The arguments motivating these conjectures essentially concern the trade-offs between the viability and credibility of different monetary frameworks.