This paper discusses the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on Data Module for Georgia. Following the 2002 ROSC mission, Georgia has continued to make impressive improvements in statistical compilation and dissemination in all areas of statistics covered by the Data ROSC. Georgia’s macroeconomic statistics are generally of high quality and adequately meet users’ needs. Georgia has made tangible improvements on the legal, institutional, methodological, and dissemination aspects of data quality.
In this paper, we derive two new measures of international relative prices for Norway. Developments in these new measures follow rather closely movements in the CPI-based real effective exchange rate through the 1990s, but diverge after 2000—suggesting that the costs of living in Norway relative to its trading partners have risen in the recent years more than the real effective exchange rate would indicate.
Under a flexible inflation targeting regime, should policymakers avoid any reaction to movements in the foreign exchange market? Using data for six advanced open economies explicitly targeting inflation, the paper examines empirically whether real exchange rate disequilibria systematically affect the conduct of monetary policy. Estimates indicate that monetary policy responses in inflation-targeting, open economies have changed significantly, as the institutional framework for the conduct of monetary policy has evolved. In particular, an explicit target for core inflation and a greater use of the expectation channel of monetary policy appear to be key features of the newest policy framework. In this context, central banks are unlikely to react to regular fluctuations in the exchange rate.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explicitly targeting inflation, the paper examines empirically whether deviations of the exchange rate from their equilibrium levels systematically affect the conduct of monetary policy.
As will become apparent in the assessments, Norway’s membership in the European Statistical System shapes Norwegian official statistics and statistical policy in a number of ways. Norway produces and disseminates a significant share of its data consistent with the legal requirements of the system. Norway’s macroeconomic statistics are of generally high quality. They are adequate to conduct effective surveillance, although the mission (held in Oslo during November 11–26, 2002, by the IMF Statistics Department) identified some shortcomings that may detract from the accurate and timely analysis of economic and financial developments and the formulation of appropriate policy.
Norway adopted an inflation targeting framework in early 2001, thus concluding its gradual but consistent move toward greater exchange rate flexibility. This paper assesses the institutional and technical design of the framework, as well as its potential implications for the practical implementation of monetary policy against the experience from selected industrial countries that had adopted inflation targeting frameworks prior to Norway. Norway's role as a commodity exporter exposed to large terms of trade shocks, and the possible consequences of newly introduced fiscal guidelines are also discussed.
Mrs. Carol S Carson, Ms. Claudia H Dziobek, and Mr. Charles Enoch
This book brings together the experience of central banks and national statistical agencies in countries that focus their monetary policy on inflation targets. Inflation targeting has led to a close interface between these two sets of institutions. When the performance of a central bank is measured in terms of specified price indices, which are usually compiled and disseminated by the national statistical agency, the role of national statistical agencies becomes central to the credibility of monetary policy. Data needs and uses have also shifted, with implications for national and international statistics compilation: market data have gained in importance; less emphasis is placed on traditional monetary aggregates; and greater attention is paid to timeliness, adherence to sound economic accounting standards, and other aspects of data quality.
The abolition of the fluctuation bands by the Icelandic government is seen as the final step of a consistent and gradual move toward increased exchange rate flexibility. Supplemented by the adoption of an inflation targeting regime, the new monetary policy framework should suit Iceland better. Iceland's new monetary policy framework has been introduced against a backdrop of a sound legal environment. The institutional and operational framework of the inflation targeting regime is well defined. The statistical data on the economic indices of Iceland are presented.
In recent years, an inflation targeting framework for monetary policy has been adopted in a number of industrial countries. This paper discusses the practical issues that have arisen under the operation of the new framework, and highlights five features of the framework: the assignment of the target, the interaction with other policy goals, the definition of the target, accountability and the role of inflation forecasts. The economic performance of the inflation targeting countries thus far is summarized.