Africa > Seychelles

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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Assistance (TA) mission focused on scoping the prospects of developing a secondary market for government securities in Seychelles. The Central Bank of Seychelles (CBS) has a leading role in developing the financial markets and thus acted as the primary counterpart for this mission. However, due to the mission being primarily fact-finding it reached out to all various possible stakeholders; the Ministry of Finance Trade Investment and Economic Planning (MoFTIEP), commercial banks, a pension fund, insurance companies, the securities exchange, securities dealers, etc. In addition, the mission sees the need to coordinate with the World bank (WB) and the IMF country (SYC) team as the former is providing assistance within the legal and payment system areas and the latter provides Seychelles with policy advice under the current PCI program.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines whether the recent slowdown in private sector credit growth in Cabo Verde is demand or supply driven. Although in the late 2000s, demand factors have been the main drivers in Cabo Verde’s credit market, supply dynamics’ role has increased in recent years. For Cabo Verde to promote private sector-led growth and sustainable economic development, reforms aiming at strengthening both credit demand and supply will be essential. These include improving the business environment for the private sector as well as strengthening the financial sector by ensuring prudent banking supervision and an effective resolution of the nonperforming loan overhang.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Seychelles’ Third Review Under the Extended Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria (PC). All PCs for end-June 2015, the program’s third test date, were met. Based on preliminary data, all the third-quarter indicative targets were also met. The structural agenda is proceeding, albeit with some delays. Growth for 2015 has been revised upward to slightly more than 4 percent. Presidential elections are taking place during December 3–5. The IMF staff recommends completion of the third review under the Extended Arrangement and modification of the PCs for end-December 2015.
Ms. Anastasia Guscina, Mr. Guilherme Pedras, and Gabriel Presciuttini
International bond issuance by debut issuers has risen in recent years. The uptick was a result of both demand and supply factors. The search for yield and demand for portfolio diversification have resulted in demand-driven easy financing conditions. At the same time, rising financing needs for many debut issuers, coupled with reduced access to concessional financing, relatively undeveloped domestic markets, and a favorable interest rate environment have made international bonds an attractive financing alternative for many countries. As bonds issued in the international markets are typically denominated in hard currencies, have large volumes and a bullet structure, exposure to exchange rate and refinancing risk has increased. Therefore, risk-mitigating policy actions are needed to prepare for redemption, support debt sustainability, and secure adequate debt management capacity.
Mr. Mauro Mecagni, Mr. Jorge I Canales Kriljenko, Cheikh A. Gueye, Mr. Yibin Mu, Mr. Masafumi Yabara, and Mr. Sebastian Weber
This African Department Paper examines the rise in international sovereign bonds issued by African frontier economies and recommends policies for potential first-time issuers.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.


Growth remained strong in the region in 2012, with regional GDP rates increasing in most countries (excluding Nigeria and South Africa). Projections point to a moderate, broad-based acceleration in growth to around 5½ percent in 2013¬14, reflecting a gradually strengthening global economy and robust domestic demand. Investment in export-oriented sectors remains an important economic driver, and an agriculture rebound in drought-affected areas will also help growth. Uncertainties in the global economy are the main risk to the region’s outlook, but plausible adverse shocks would likely not have a large effect on the region’s overall performance.

International Monetary Fund
his paper reviews the recent application of the Fund’s policies and practices on sovereign debt restructuring. Specifically, the paper: • recaps in a holistic manner the various policies and practices that underpin the Fund's legal and policy framework for sovereign debt restructuring, including on debt sustainability, market access, financing assurances, arrears, private sector involvement (PSI), official sector involvement (OSI), and the use of legal instruments; • reviews how this framework has been applied in the context of Fund-supported programs and highlights the issues that have emerged in light of recent experience with debt restructuring; and • describes recent initiatives in various fora aimed at promoting orderly sovereign debt restructuring, highlighting differences with the Fund’s existing framework. Based on this stocktaking, the paper identifies issues that could be considered in further depth in follow-up work by staff to assess whether the Fund’s framework for debt restructuring should be adapted: • first, debt restructurings have often been too little and too late, thus failing to re-establish debt sustainability and market access in a durable way. Overcoming these problems likely requires action on several fronts, including (i) increased rigor and transparency of debt sustainability and market access assessments, (ii) exploring ways to prevent the use of Fund resources to simply bail out private creditors, and (iii) measures to alleviate the costs associated with restructurings; • second, while creditor participation has been adequate in recent restructurings, the current contractual, market-based approach to debt restructuring is becoming less potent in overcoming collective action problems, especially in pre-default cases. In response, consideration could be given to making the contractual framework more effective, including through the introduction of more robust aggregation clauses into international sovereign bonds bearing in mind the inter-creditor equity issues that such an approach may raise. The Fund may also consider ways to condition use of its financing more tightly to the resolution of collective action problems; • third, the growing role and changing composition of official lending call for a clearer framework for official sector involvement, especially with regard to non-Paris Club creditors, for which the modality for securing program financing commitments could be tightened; and • fourth, although the collaborative, good-faith approach to resolving external private arrears embedded in the lending into arrears (LIA) policy remains the most promising way to regain market access post-default, a review of the effectiveness of the LIA policy is in order in light of recent experience and the increased complexity of the creditor base. Consideration could also be given to extending the LIA policy to official arrears.
International Monetary Fund
On the revenue side of Seychelles, both tax and nontax revenues have shown marked increases during 1998–99 on account of a number of factors. A strengthening of tax administration has yielded significant improvements in tax collections, particularly in the areas of taxes on income and profits, which has increased from 4.4 percent of GDP in 1997 to 6.8 percent of GDP in 1999. Trade taxes on domestic goods and services have grown from about 7 percent of GDP in 1997 to about 8 percent of GDP in 1999.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix discusses initial performance and other issues relating to the implementation of the value-added tax in Mauritius in 1998. The paper highlights that as the Mauritius economy has continued to expand at a relatively rapid pace, the need for the monetary authorities to enhance their ability to influence domestic liquidity, as well as to ensure the integrity of the banking system, has become increasingly apparent. The paper also analyzes various issues in the banking sector of Mauritius.