Asia and Pacific > Philippines

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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Philippines is a dynamic economy with a relatively smaller financial system than other Asian emerging market economies, dominated by banks. The total assets of the system amount to 126 percent of GDP. However, bank credit is just over 50 percent of GDP and mostly goes to nonfinancial corporates (NFCs). Banks are also tightly interlinked with NFCs through conglomerate ownerships. Access to finance for individuals is significantly lower than comparator systems, with only a third of adults having formal accounts. Non-bank financial institutions and capital markets—especially bond markets—are substantially less developed than banks. The Fintech ecosystem is nascent.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Bangko Sentral Ng Pilipinas (BSP), together with the other financial sector regulators and the Department of Finance (DoF), made significant progress in developing a framework for macroprudential supervision. The BSP plays a central role as the bank and payment system supervisor, as well as macroprudential authority with with its financial stability mandate obtained in 2019, and the chair of inter-agency coordination mechanisms (Financial Stability Coordination Council, FSCC). The FSCC was established in 2011 as a voluntary interagency body (without decision-making powers) to coordinate macroprudential policies and crisis management and include the BSP, Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), Insurance Commission (IC), Philippine Deposit Insurance Commission (PDIC) and the DoF. Within the BSP, a financial stability “unit” (OSRM, established in 2017) works on macroprudential analysis and policy preparation. BSP’s Financial Stability Policy Committee (FSPC), a Monetary Board (MB) subcommittee established in 2020, decides on macroprudential issues, while policy decision making on monetary policy and financial sector supervision takes place in the MB.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Philippines is highly vulnerable to risks from climate change. The Philippines is categorized as one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to climate change and natural disasters, especially typhoons. Depending on where a severe typhoon hits the Philippines, it could potentially cause a systemic impact. All major cities and most of the population reside on the coastline, including the metropolitan Manila area where about 60 percent of economic activities take place. On the other hand, exposures to transition risk are concentrated in the coal-based power generation sector and the government’s licensing policy to build new power plants.
Gülçin Özkan and Ms. Filiz D Unsal
The recent global financial crisis was the first in recent history that was triggered by problems in the financial system of the mature economies. Existing work on financial crisis in emerging market countries, however, almost exclusively focus on the role of financial frictions in the domestic economy. In contrast, we propose a two-country DSGE model to investigate the transmission of a global financial crisis that originates from financial frictions in the rest of the world. We find that the scale of financial spillovers from the global to the domestic economy and trade openness are key determinants of the severity of the financial crisis for the domestic economy. Our results also suggest that the welfare ranking of alternative monetary policy regimes is determined by the degree of financial contagion, the degree of trade openness as well as the scale of foreign currency denominated debt in the domestic economy.
Ms. Filiz D Unsal and Carlos Caceres
This paper explores how much of the movements in the sovereign spreads of Asian economies over the course of the global financial crisis has reflected shifts in (i) global risk aversion; (ii) country-specific risks, directly from worsening fundamentals, and indirectly from spillovers originating in other sovereigns and the uncertainty surrounding exchange rates. Earlier in the crisis, the increase in market-implied contagion led to higher Asian sovereign bond yield spreads over swaps. But, after the crisis, Asia’s sovereign spreads normalized, despite the debt crisis in the euro area, reflecting a fall in both exchange rate and spillover risks.
Mr. Simon T Gray, Andreas Jobst, Mr. Joshua Felman, and Ana Carvajal
This paper examines a range of issues relating to bond markets in the ASEAN5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) - physical infrastructure including trading, clearing and settlement; regulation, supervision and legal underpinnings; and derivatives markets - and finds that the frameworks compare well with other Emerging Markets, following a decade of reform. A number of areas where further enhancements could be made are highlighted. The paper also examines the interrelationship between central bank management of short-term interest rates and domestic currency liquidity, and development of the wider money and bond markets; and suggests some lessons from the recent crisis in developed country financial markets which may be important for the future development of the ASEAN5 markets.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews the Financial System Stability Assessment Update on the Philippines. The assessment reveals that the banking sector has been strengthened considerably since the Asian crisis of the late 1990s and today appears generally resilient to a broad range of macroeconomic risks. The impact of the ongoing global crisis has been milder than originally feared, and the macroeconomic outlook is improving, although risks remain elevated in the near term. Considerable progress has been made toward implementing the recommendations of the initial Financial Sector Assessment Program, particularly in banking supervision.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Group of Seven Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors met in Canada on February 8–9 to discuss the global economy, the importance of fostering development, and ongoing efforts to combat the financing of terrorism. The Managing Director of the IMF participated in the meeting.
International Monetary Fund
This paper identifies macroeconomic stability, effective bank supervision, and an appropriate sequencing of stabilization, banking regulations, and interest rate policies as common characteristics of the relatively successful experiments in financial sector liberalization. Recent theoretical developments help to explain why interest rates in free markets for bank credit may fall short of market-clearing levels, or may rise to risky levels with adverse consequences for financial institutions and the economy at large. To prevent such outcomes, macro-economic stabilization and improved bank supervision should generally precede complete removal of control on bank interest rates.