Western Hemisphere > Peru

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Elías Albagli, Mauricio Calani, Metodij Hadzi-Vaskov, Mario Marcel, and Mr. Luca A Ricci
Chile offers an example of a country that has overcome the fear of floating by reducing balance sheet mismatches, enhancing financial market development, as well as improving monetary, fiscal, and political institutions, and strengthening policy credibility. Under the floating regime, Chile’s economic adjustment to external shocks appears significantly improved, and its exchange rate pass-through has substantially declined. Our results reinforce the case that moving to a clear and credible floating regime can be associated with a reduction in the fear of floating via economic transformation (like smaller balance sheet mismatches, a larger hedging market, and a lower exchange rate pass-through).
Mr. Ananthakrishnan Prasad, Mr. Selim A Elekdag, Mr. Phakawa Jeasakul, Romain Lafarguette, Mr. Adrian Alter, Alan Xiaochen Feng, and Changchun Wang
The growth-at-risk (GaR) framework links current macrofinancial conditions to the distribution of future growth. Its main strength is its ability to assess the entire distribution of future GDP growth (in contrast to point forecasts), quantify macrofinancial risks in terms of growth, and monitor the evolution of risks to economic activity over time. By using GaR analysis, policymakers can quantify the likelihood of risk scenarios, which would serve as a basis for preemptive action. This paper offers practical guidance on how to conduct GaR analysis and draws lessons from country case studies. It also discusses an Excel-based GaR tool developed to support the IMF’s bilateral surveillance efforts.


La eficiencia, la eficacia y la transparencia de la gestión financiera pública en América Latina son fundamentales para la supervisión de los recursos públicos, la estabilidad fiscal y el desarrollo económico sostenible. En años recientes, los países de América Latina han adoptado reformas en la gestión financiera pública y han logrado muchos avances importantes; sin embargo, todavía existen retos. Este libro reúne el conocimiento y las experiencias del personal técnico del FMI y el BID y de representantes de 16 Gobiernos de la región para documentar estas reformas, y examina las experiencias y las lecciones aprendidas. Es un recurso valioso para quienes se ocupan de estos temas en la gestión financiera pública.


In recent years, the countries of Latin America have embraced reforms in public financial management and have made many important advances—however, many challenges remain. This book brings together IMF and IDB staff and representatives from 16 governments in the region to document these reforms, and to examine the experiences and lessons learned. It is a valuable resource for those looking at issues in public financial management.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper assesses Peru’s fiscal transparency practices in comparison with the IMF’s Fiscal Transparency Code, including the new draft pillar on resource revenue management. Peru’s practices meet most of the principles of the IMF’s Fiscal Transparency Code at good or advanced level. The country provides an extensive set of fiscal information with financial statements covering the entire public sector. There is a comprehensive budget supported by a solid fiscal framework with clear policy objectives embedded in numerical fiscal rules. The country also has a clear and comprehensive legal and fiscal regime for the management of resource revenue.
Mr. Fabiano Rodrigues Rodrigues Bastos, Herman Kamil, and Mr. Bennett W Sutton
Easy global liquidity conditions, stronger risk appetite and a retrenchment in cross-border bank lending led to a surge in emerging market firms’ bond issuance in international markets (what we term “The Bon(d)anza”). Using firm-level data for five large Latin American economies, we provide evidence of a significant change in companies’ external funding strategies and liability structures after 2010, as well as in the balance sheet risks that firms face. We find that stepped up bond issuance was mostly aimed at re-financing rather than funding investment projects, as firms extended the average duration of their debt while securing lower fixed-rates, reducing roll-over and interest rate risks. The shift towards safer maturity structures has come at the expense of a leveraging-up in foreign-currency-denominated financial debt in several countries— reversing a de-dollarization trend seen during the last decade. We also provide evidence that a substantial part of these bonds were issued through offshore vehicles, suggesting regulatory and tax arbitrage strategies. For some corporations, rising dollar debt and high leverage will be particularly taxing in an environment of US dollar strengthening, less buoyant commodity prices and slowing domestic activity.
Mr. Peter Stella
Central bank financial strength is positively associated with good policy performance. Financially weak central banks generate losses which undermine macroeconomic stability and call into question the credibility of their policies. In assessing central bank financial strength a careful examination of the policy regime and the volatility of the economic environment is necessary. Conventional measures of private enterprise financial strength- profitability and capital-can be very misleading when applied to central banks. The way in which a central bank balance sheet is strengthened matters. Providing the central bank with marketable government debt that can be used to develop a money market that in turn may become the locus of central bank monetary operations serves both to directly strengthen the institution and improve the quality of the environment in which it operates, thereby facilitating the attainment of its ultimate performance objectives.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper focuses on policies to promote high, sustainable growth in Peru, the risks posed by dollarization, and key medium-term fiscal issues of decentralization and social security reform. The paper identifies the main impediments to output and employment growth and proposes steps to remove them. It uses a balance sheet approach to analyze Peru’s highly dollarized economy, and finds that the factors explaining Peru’s relatively low international trade levels are related to the impediments to growth. The paper also looks at the main impediments to high, sustainable output, and employment growth in Peru.