Asia and Pacific > New Zealand

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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
A mission was requested by the New Zealand authorities to the Cook Islands to focus on policy options for transitioning to high-income status, financial sector stability and regulatory framework, and debt sustainability.1 It evaluated these issues in the context of the medium-term outlook and against the context of a recently developed fiscal framework. The Cook Islands is a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand, but it is not an IMF member (Box 1).
Lucyna Gornicka and Ms. Laura Valderrama
We present a semi-structural model of default risk, which is a function of loan and borrower characteristics, economic conditions, and the regulatory environment. We use this model to simulate bank credit losses for stress-testing purposes and to calibrate borrower-based macroprudential tools. The proposed approach is very flexible and is particularly useful when there is limited history of crisis episodes, when crises bring unanticipated shocks where past tail events offer little guidance and when structural shocks or changes in financial regulations have altered the loan default process. We apply the model to quantify mortgage lending risk in two distinct mortgage markets. For each application, we show a range of modeling adjustments that can be made to capture country-specific institutional features. The model uses bank portfolio data broken down by risk bucket and vintage, which enables us to take explicit account of the loan life cycle and to incorporate the housing and economic cycles. This feature facilitates a timely assessment of banks’ loss-absorbing capacity and the buildup of systemic risk conditional on policy. It also enables counterfactual analysis and the evaluation of macroprudential policy interventions.
Sonja Davidovic, Ms. Elena Loukoianova, Cormac Sullivan, and Hervé Tourpe
The Bali Fintech Agenda highlights 12 principles for policymakers to consider when formulating their approaches to new financial technology (fintech). The agenda aims to harness the potential of fintech while managing associated risks. This paper looks at how some elements of the Bali Fintech Agenda could be used in Pacific island countries, which face significant financial-structural challenges.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This technical assistance mission report underlines efforts to estimate the economic and revenue contributions of the international financial services industry in the Cook Islands. This report discusses the data and methodology used and presents the results. One matter that has been raised is that international companies are exempt from all taxes in the Cook Islands. The economic contribution of the international financial services industry can be measured by the value added of resident institutional units engaged, directly or indirectly, in the production of international financial services in the Cook Islands. The production of international financial services generates income which is distributed to the various agents or groups of agents who use that income to acquire goods and services for consumption now or later. The international financial services industry also contributes indirectly to gross domestic product through two channels. The first channel is through the goods and services that the industry purchases from other suppliers, such as electricity, accounting services, telecommunications, etc.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper analyzes systemic risks related to Financial Market Infrastructures (FMI) in Australia, in particular central counterparties (CCP). Supervision and oversight of FMIs is well-established with supervisory expectations importantly strengthened over the past few years. It is recommended that the Reserve Bank of Australia considers reviewing its approach to payment systems oversight, in particular by providing greater clarity as regards requirements for systemically and less systemically important payment systems. The IMF team suggests that Australian authorities could benefit from the experiences of and lessons learned by other jurisdictions through their regular and more specialized coordination and communication efforts with other supervisors and resolution authorities. The authorities should also review, and could benefit from, the experiences of and lessons learned in the formulation and codification of Australia’s bank and insurer resolution regime. Enforcement powers for the supervision of CCPs and Securities Settlement Systems should however be strengthened in accordance with the Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Detailed Assessment of Observance report specifies Base Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Australia. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, and a detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institution(s) responsible for banking regulation and supervision. In line with the BCP methodology, the assessment focused on banking supervision and regulation in Australia and did not cover the specificities of regulation and supervision of other financial institutions. The assessment has made use of five categories to determine compliance: compliant; largely compliant, materially noncompliant, noncompliant, and non-applicable. The report insists that Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) should put more focus on assessing the various components of firms’ Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process and other firm-wide stress testing practices. A periodic more comprehensive assessment of banks’ risk management and governance frameworks will further enhance APRA’s supervisory approach.