Western Hemisphere > Nicaragua

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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Nicaragua highlights that social unrest and its aftermath eroded confidence and caused large capital and bank deposits outflows that resulted in a prolonged output contraction. Banks cut lending, which exacerbated the downturn. Faced with sharply lower revenues and a severe tightening in available financing, including on account of sanctions, the government was forced to cut spending and adopt a procyclical tax package. The economy is projected to continue to contract in the near term as it adjusts to weaker confidence and lower external financing. The sharp contraction in credit will continue to depress investment, and the tight fiscal and external financing situation will continue to drag down medium-term growth. The key risks relate to further erosion in confidence and renewed deposit outflows. The imposition of additional sanctions by trading partners could also heighten economic stress. It is recommended to maintain a conservative fiscal stance in 2020 remains the key to maintain macroeconomic stability. Curbing expenditures on goods and services will allow increased spending on social programs, social safety nets, and public investment, which would lead to more equitable and sustainable growth.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights Nicaragua’s robust macroeconomic performance in 2016. Real GDP grew by 4.7 percent in 2016, supported by strong domestic demand, while inflation remained subdued at 3.1 percent as of the end of 2016, owing largely to the contribution of food prices. The current account deficit for 2016 is estimated to have narrowed to 8.6 percent of GDP, compared with 9 percent in 2015. This consolidation is largely explained by maquila exports, which have been better captured owing to improvements in statistical compilation. The current account deficit remained financed by foreign direct investment and other long-term inflows.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
The 2015 Article IV Consultation presents economic outlook and risks of Nicaragua. Over the last three years, real GDP growth has averaged 4.8 percent, one of the highest in the region, while inflation has remained anchored by the exchange rate regime. Poverty has fallen sharply, but unemployment has increased due to a decline in the manufacturing sector. The current policy mix is broadly adequate to maintain macroeconomic stability in the near term, but Nicaragua needs to fortify its policy framework. In particular, reducing tax exonerators and exemptions and improving the targeting of fiscal subsidies would strengthen the efficiency and equity of public finances and contribute to rebuilding fiscal buffers.
Maximilien Kaffo Melou, Mariusz A. Sumlinski, and Chris Geiregat
We analyse the debt dynamics in countries that benefited from the HIPC/MDRI debt relief initiatives with a view to applying a probabilistic approach to estimating future debt paths for those countries. We extend the probabilistic approach to public debt sustainability analysis (DSA) proposed by Celasun et al. (2006). This required addressing the twin challenges of a the time period that is too short to conduct country-by-country estimations and the presence, suggested by econometric evidence, of a break–point around 2006 in the dynamics of debt accumulation. To overcome the data limitations, we pool the data and estimate a panel VAR, thus taking advantage of the large cross–section. To account for the break–point, while applying a probabilistic approach to forecasting debt paths, we use the post–break–point information so as not to bias the forecasts of debt paths. As an illustration of the approach we apply the methodology to eight countries with different debt profiles.
International Monetary Fund
This report provides an update on the status of implementation, impact and costs of the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). With a view to the upcoming Financing for Development meetings in Doha, the report not only reports on recent progress since mid-2007, but also on developments since the Monterrey Consensus recommendations on external debt relief.
International Monetary Fund
This report provides an update on the status of implementation, impact and costs of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) since mid-2006. It also discusses the status of creditor participation in both initiatives and the issue of litigation of commercial creditors against HIPCs.
International Monetary Fund
The paper focuses on the operational implications of high and volatile aid for the design of Fund-supported programs. It provides a conceptual framework that should guide country teams in giving advice to low-income countries on a case-by-case basis, without specific quantitative performance thresholds for the spending and absorption of additional aid. In doing so, it responds to some of the concerns raised by the Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) in its recent evaluation of the Fund and aid to sub-Saharan Africa
International Monetary Fund
This report reviews progress and issues in implementing the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and reports on the implementation of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) by IDA, the IMF, and AfDF. It concludes that the volume of debt relief has increased significantly since the inception of the HIPC Initiative in 1996, thereby reducing HIPCs’ debt service burdens and allowing them to finance increased poverty reduction efforts. It also provides updated information on the costs of debt relief under the HIPC Initiative and the MDRI. Finally, it reviews the status of creditor participation and delivery of debt relief under the two initiatives, highlighting the challenges to increase the participation by non–Paris Club official bilateral and commercial creditors in the HIPC Initiative.
International Monetary Fund
This paper puts forward a package of proposed decisions to implement the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (“MDRI”) and establish the Exogenous Shocks Facility within the PRGF Trust; it also provides a Commentary on key aspects of the decisions. The proposed decisions generally reflect the overall structure and modalities that have been identified by the staff and endorsed by Executive Directors in the several meetings held to date concerning the G-8 debt relief proposal/MDRI and ESF.