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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Global Informal Workforce is a fresh look at the informal economy around the world and its impact on the macroeconomy. The book covers interactions between the informal economy, labor and product markets, gender equality, fiscal institutions and outcomes, social protection, and financial inclusion. Informality is a widespread and persistent phenomenon that affects how fast economies can grow, develop, and provide decent economic opportunities for their populations. The COVID-19 pandemic has helped to uncover the vulnerabilities of the informal workforce.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Este é um extrato de The Global Informal Workforce: Priorities for Inclusive Growth, organizado por Corinne C. Deléchat e Leandro Medina. Esta análise da força de trabalho informal no mundo oferece uma perspectiva nova sobre a economia informal em todas as regiões e seu impacto na macroeco[1]nomia. O livro descreve as interações entre a economia informal, os mercados de trabalho e de produtos, a igualdade de gênero, as instituições fiscais e seus resultados, a proteção social e a inclusão financeira. A informalidade é um fenômeno generalizado e persistente que afeta o ritmo de crescimento e desenvolvimento das economias e sua capacidade de oferecer oportunidades econômicas dignas a suas populações. A pandemia de Covid-19 contribuiu para expor as vulnerabilidades da força de trabalho informal.

Gustavo Adler, Kyun Suk Chang, Rui Mano, and Yuting Shao
Foreign exchange intervention (FXI) is a highly debated topic. Yet, comprehensive and comparable data on FXI is hard to find. This paper provides a new dataset of FXI covering a large number of countries over the period 2000-20 at monthly and quarterly frequencies. It includes publicly available data for about 40 countries and carefully constructed proxies for 122 countries. Proxies are focused on both spot and derivative transactions that alter the central bank’s foreign currency position and account for a wide range of central bank operations, including vis-à-vis residents, the first proxy to do so to our knowledge. The paper discusses the merits of the new proxy relative to coarser measures traditionally used like the change in reserves, and potential definitional differences with published data. The paper also presents stylized facts using our newly constructed FXI proxies.
Ioana Moldovan, Susan Yang Shu-Chun, and Luis-Felipe Zanna
This paper assesses the optimal setting of fiscal spending and foreign exchange rate intervention policies in response to volatile foreign aid, in a small open economy model that incorporates typical features of low-income countries. Within a class of policy rules, it jointly considers the optimal aid spending and international reserve accumulation policies. The results show that it is optimal to adjust government spending gradually in response to unpredictable fluctuations in aid, while partially accumulating foreign exchange reserves to offset Dutch disease effects. Also, allocating relatively more of the government spending to productive public investment, and less to government consumption, is welfare improving.
Mr. Marcos d Chamon, Mr. David J Hofman, Mr. Nicolas E Magud, and Alejandro M. Werner

Abstract

Foreign exchange intervention is widely used as a policy tool, particularly in emerging markets, but many facets of this tool remain limited, especially in the context of flexible exchange rate regimes. The Latin American experience can be informative because some of its largest countries adopted floating exchange rate regimes and inflation targeting while continuing to intervene in foreign exchange markets. This edited volume reviews detailed accounts from several Latin American countries’ central banks, and it provides insight into how and with what aim many interventions were decided and implemented. This book documents the effectiveness of intervention and pays special attention to the role of foreign exchange intervention policy within inflation-targeting monetary frameworks. The main lesson from Latin America’s foreign exchange interventions, in the context of inflation targeting, is that the region has had a considerable degree of success. Transparency and a clear communication policy have been key. For economies that are not highly dollarized, rules-based intervention helped contain financial instability and build international reserves while preserving inflation targets. The Latin American experience can help other countries in the design and implementation of their policies.

International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept. and International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.
The Fund’s total net income for FY 2018 is projected at about SDR 0.7 billion, broadly in line with the April 2017 estimate. The projections for total lending income are broadly unchanged. Most sources of lending income are lower, reflecting a lower level of credit outstanding as a result of advance repurchases and delayed disbursements. However, projected commitment fee income is higher following the early cancellation of a large FCL arrangement in November 2017. The paper recommends that GRA net income of SDR 0.7 billion for FY 2018 (excluding projected income of the gold sales profits-funded Endowment Subaccount) be placed to the special and general reserve. After the placement of GRA FY 2018 net income to reserves, precautionary balances are projected to reach SDR 17.4 billion at the end of FY 2018. The paper further proposes to transfer currencies equivalent to the increase in the Fund’s reserves from the GRA to the Investment Account. The paper also revisits options for the allocation of net income between the special and general reserve, and proposes that net income be allocated equally between the special and general reserve. In line with the recent Board discussion of a framework for guiding future payouts from the Endowment Subaccount, the paper presents a detailed proposal, which includes delaying payouts for three years to protect the real value of the Endowment. The paper also recommends that the margin for the rate of charge for the period FY 2019–2020 be kept unchanged at 100 basis points. The margin will again be set under the exceptional circumstances clause, as non-lending income continues to be constrained by the low interest rate environment and lending income will be used to finance a portion of the Fund’s non-lending activities. The projections for FY 2019 and FY 2020 point to a net income position of SDR 0.4 billion and SDR 1 billion, respectively. These projections are subject to considerable uncertainty and are sensitive to a number of assumptions.
International Monetary Fund
The Fund’s total net income for FY 2017, including surcharges, is projected at about SDR 1.7 billion or some SDR 0.7 billion higher than expected in April 2016. This mainly reflects the IAS 19 adjustment (relating to reporting of employee benefits), which is expected to contribute about SDR 0.4 billion to net income, and higher investment income. Lending income is expected to be modestly lower than the April 2016 estimates. The paper recommends that GRA net income of SDR 1.2 billion for FY 2017 (which excludes projected income of the gold endowment), be placed equally to the special and general reserve. After the placement of GRA FY 2017 net income to reserves, precautionary balances are projected to reach SDR 16.4 billion at the end of FY 2017. The paper further proposes to transfer currencies equivalent to the increase in the Fund’s reserves from the GRA to the Investment Account. In April 2016, the margin for the rate of charge was set at 100 basis points for the two years FY 2017 and FY 2018. The margin may be adjusted before the end of the first year of this two-year period (i.e., FY 2017) but only if warranted by fundamental changes in the underlying factors relevant for the establishment of the margin at the start of the two-year period. Staff does not propose a change in the margin. The projections for FY 2018 point to a net income position of SDR 0.7 billion. These projections are subject to considerable uncertainty and are sensitive to a number of assumptions.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses Mexico’s Review under the Flexible Credit Line. Mexico’s very strong policies and policy frameworks have helped it navigate successfully a complex external environment characterized by the heightened risk of protectionism and financial market volatility. Inflation is above the central bank’s target, reflecting mainly the transitory effects of the liberalization of domestic fuel prices and the pass-through from the currency depreciation. Although the global environment and financial stability have improved somewhat recently, downside risks affecting Mexico remain elevated amid continued uncertainty about the outcome of the discussions with the United States on trade, as well as a possible renewed surge in capital flow volatility.