Asia and Pacific > Macao Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China

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International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
This paper provides the basis for the quinquennial review by the Executive Board of the method of valuation of the Special Drawing Right (SDR). The review covers the composition and weighting of the SDR currency basket, and the financial instruments used to determine the SDR interest rate. In the five-year period for this review (2017‒21), developments in key variables relevant for the SDR valuation suggest that there have been no major changes in the roles of currencies in the world economy. The countries and the currency union (euro area) whose currencies are currently included in the SDR basket remain the five largest exporters and their currencies continue to account for the majority of international financial transactions. Moreover, staff analysis finds that the COVID-19 pandemic and recent fintech developments have no systematic or material impact on the SDR valuation. The paper proposes to maintain the current composition of the SDR currency and interest rate baskets, as well as the method for determining the currency weights and currency amounts in the basket. In line with the Board-approved methodology, the paper proposes updated weights for the currencies in the SDR basket. These maintain the same ranking of the initial weights set in the 2015 review, with slightly higher weights for the U.S. dollar and the Chinese renminbi and, accordingly, somewhat lower weights for the British pound, the euro, and the Japanese yen. The paper also proposes to make explicit the treatment of data gaps in the SDR valuation framework. Findings from a survey of SDR department participants and prescribed holders are used to follow up on operational issues raised in earlier valuation reviews. The new SDR valuation and interest rate baskets are proposed to come into effect on August 1, 2022 for a period of five years.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights China’s continued transition to sustainable growth, with progress on many fronts. Growth slowed to 6.9 percent in 2015 and is projected to moderate to 6.6 percent in 2016 owing to slower private investment and weak external demand. The economy is advancing on many dimensions of rebalancing, particularly switching from industry to services and from investment to consumption. But other aspects are lagging, such as strengthening state-owned enterprises and financial governance and containing rapid credit growth. The current account surplus is projected to decline to 2.5 percent of GDP in 2016 as imports increase and the services deficit widens with continued outbound tourism.
International Monetary Fund
This paper lays out initial considerations for the quinquennial review of the method of valuation of the Special Drawing Right (SDR) currency basket. As in previous reviews, a key objective is to enhance the attractiveness of the SDR as an international reserve asset. In that context, the review will assess the currencies for SDR basket inclusion, currency weights, and the SDR interest rate basket. The paper takes as a starting point the conclusions of the last review in 2010 and the subsequent Board discussion of currency selection criteria in 2011. At the time of the last review, China met the gateway export criterion but the renminbi (RMB) was not included in the SDR basket as it was not judged to be freely usable, the second currency selection criterion. In light of the Board’s broad support in 2011 for the existing legal framework, and since China continues to meet the export criterion, this paper discusses building blocks relevant for a future determination on whether to include the RMB in the basket under the existing criteria.
International Monetary Fund
The IMF staff has updated individual member country data for the variables used in the quota formula for the period 2001-13. The staff paper also presents updated calculated quota shares based on the current quota formula. The current quota formula includes a GDP variable, which is a blend of GDP at market rates and GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP), openness, variability, and international reserves. The International Monetary and Financial Committee has called for agreement on a new quota formula as part of the 15th General Review of Quotas. The paper presents a limited set of illustrative simulations of possible reforms of the quota formula using the updated quota data. These simulations are purely illustrative and do not represent proposals. The new data tables that can be downloaded via the below link include also the comparable value of each variable for the previous quota dataset, which was based on data covering the period 2000-2012. The information is presented in millions of SDRs (Table A1) and in percent of their respective global totals (Tables A2 and A3). A table showing calculated quota shares based on the current quota formula is also included (Table A4). Data sources and a description of the quota variables are discussed in Quota Formula – Data Update - Statistical Appendix; IMF Policy Paper; July 2015. Download Quota Data: Updated IMF Quota Formula Variables - July 2015
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This staff report on People’s Republic of China 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights macroeconomic developments and outlook. China has maintained robust growth since the global crisis, but the heavy reliance on credit and investment to sustain activity is raising vulnerabilities. The consequence is a steady build-up of leverage that is eroding the strength of the financial sector, local government, and corporate balance sheets. This is most apparent in the continued rapid expansion in total social financing. The development of nontraditional finance marks a shift to more market-based intermediation, and the migration of activity to less-regulated parts of the system poses risks to financial stability.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Portugal—Macau during 1997–99. It highlights the way in which Macau’s economic development evolved over the years. The paper discusses developments in prices, wages, and employment, and sheds light on how the product and labor markets adjusted to external shocks—in particular to the Asian crisis as well as the increased competition faced by the economy in recent years (1997–99). The paper also reviews the budgetary process and budgetary developments and highlights structural problems that are inherent in the fiscal system.