Africa > Madagascar, Republic of

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International Monetary Fund. Office of Budget and Planning
The paper presents highlights from the FY 2020 budget, followed by a discussion of outputs based on the Fund Thematic Categories and of inputs.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper analyses tax revenue mobilization potential in Madagascar and lessons learned from successful episodes in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The analysis shows that there is a significant tax potential including through a possible broadening of the tax base, notably for consumption taxation; and underscores the importance of a comprehensive revenue strategy, including by combining reforms in tax policy and in tax and customs administrations. Significant progress has been made in terms of organization, simplification of procedures, management, and dialogue with the taxpayers. Communication between the two tax administrations could be improved. The tax administrations should notify each other if a case of fraud. Also, the domestic tax administration should have access to customs import/export data: many importers are active and make customs declarations without being identified by the domestic tax administration. Given the weaknesses in the provision of public services, social dialogue and consultation are important to explain the rationality of the tax system and the use of the tax revenue by the State.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper presents 2019 Article IV Consultation with the Republic of Madagascar and its Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement. Madagascar’s performance under its economic program supported by the ECF arrangement has been broadly satisfactory with solid growth, moderate single digit inflation, and a robust external position. As a fragile, low-income country, Madagascar continues to face risks associated with weak implementation capacity, potential fiscal slippages, social fragility in a context of widespread poverty, and vulnerability to exogenous shocks including to terms of trade and natural disasters. Going forward, a commitment to strong policies and an ambitious agenda to complete outstanding structural reforms remains crucial to mitigate internal and external risks, strengthen macroeconomic stability, and achieve higher, sustainable, and inclusive growth. The authorities’ economic reform agenda summarized in the Plan Emergence Madagascar aims to raise economic growth through increased public and private investment, strengthening human capital, and improving governance. Creating additional fiscal space by further improving revenue mobilization through a medium-term tax revenue strategy, containing lower priority spending, and enhancing investment implementation capacity is essential for scaling-up priority investment and social spending in education, health, and housing.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Madagascar’s Fourth Review under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria. Madagascar’s economic recovery continued in 2018, notwithstanding challenges related to the presidential election in November/December 2018. While some economic pressures developed in the second half of 2018, economic conditions remained generally positive. The discussions focused on maintaining progress on the key objectives of the program, especially boosting fiscal space for priority investment and social spending by containing lower priority spending. The main challenges involved fuel pricing and transfers to the public utility, JIRAMA. Other issues included structural reforms to promote inclusive growth, most notably in investment capacity, the financial sector, and governance. The outlook continues to be generally positive. Pursuit of economic reforms should yield results, while the pressures in 2018 from higher oil prices and pre-electoral weakness in confidence abate under the baseline. As a low-income country with an open economy, Madagascar remains vulnerable to exogenous shocks.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
This mission’s goal was to have the Malagasy authorities adopt the methodology of the Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014 for their own needs. The desired outcome of adopting the manual is to develop a set of government finance statistics (GFSs) that are consistent with current international standards in order to conduct a macroeconomic analysis of government finance.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic developments in Madagascar were encouraging in 2016. Driven by public investment, increasing textile exports, and accelerating activity in agroindustry, economic growth reached 4.2 percent in 2016—the highest level since 2008. Reforms continued in revenue administration, and fiscal revenue exceeded targets. Inflation was contained at 7.0 percent at end-2016. The external position strengthened significantly, benefitting from a positive shock to vanilla export prices and strong growth in manufacturing exports. In spite of current challenges, the medium term outlook is favorable. Growth is projected to accelerate, driven by the investment scaling up, tourism, garments and other light manufacturing, mining, and productivity gains in agriculture.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper surveys the economic costs of corruption in Madagascar, and provides a few ideas on how to advance anticorruption reforms. Madagascar’s governance indicators weakened significantly during the transition period 2009–13. Governance indicators that generally were on par with middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ten years ago have regressed and converged to the average of fragile SSA countries. After the return of constitutional order in 2014, the government has started to address corruption, mainly through the introduction of new laws so far. More emphasis is needed on effective implementation and raising sufficient resources to fight corruption.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
KEY ISSUES Context: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Weak economic growth has contributed to persistent and increasing poverty with deteriorating social indicators. In a fragile environment, the uncertainty linked to political instability, weak institutions, and weak governance has eroded the foundation for solid economic growth, with short-term rent-seeking having taken precedence over longer-term nation building. Outlook and Risks: The authorities are at a crossroads. A well-prioritized medium-term economic program that is implemented concertedly would increase growth and reduce poverty. This will require resources in order to undertake essential investment in infrastructure, as well as to increase social spending on education and health. However, there are downside risks, whereby a slow pace of reform implementation would keep Madagascar on a path of economic stagnation and persistent poverty. Fiscal Policy: There is a need to increase fiscal space in order to raise the level and efficiency of pro-poor/pro-growth spending while preserving debt sustainability. This will involve a broadening of the tax base, supported by a comprehensive revenue mobilization strategy, improving the composition and quality of budgetary spending, and reinforcing public financial management. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies: To facilitate an active monetary policy and safeguard macroeconomic stability, it will be important to increase central bank independence, strengthen its oversight mechanisms, and recapitalize the central bank. A floating regime remains appropriate, but it will be important to ensure that the foreign exchange market is liquid and reflects market conditions. Structural Reforms: There is a need to strengthen the economic climate, including through improved governance and social development policies that would send a clear signal, both within society and to development partners, confirming the government’s commitment to reform. To help build public support for continued reforms, it would be advisable to build an early track record of “small victories/quick wins”.
International Monetary Fund
There has been progress in strengthening public financial management; however, improving budget execution and strengthening public finances is required. The tax and custom administration reforms will help bolster private sector-led growth and meet the ambitious revenue target to finance priority expenditure. Monetary and exchange rate policy is required to reduce inflation while preventing an overshooting of the exchange rate. Further progress is needed to foster financial sector development. A more ambitious rehabilitation plan for the electricity sector needs to be designed and implemented with urgency.