Middle East and Central Asia

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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Uzbekistan embarked on an ambitious reform path in 2017, starting to liberalize its economy after years of state control. Incomes are still relatively low compared to other emerging economies and the role of the state is still large. Uzbekistan weathered the pandemic relatively well. Strong fundamentals, ample policy buffers, and high gold prices allowed the authorities to take strong actions to mitigate the impact of the pandemic and growth accelerated to 7.4 percent in 2021.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
The Executive Board approved a 12-month Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) on June 26, 2020, to support the Egyptian authorities’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The SBA, at 184.8 percent of quota, was part of a two-step support strategy that was preceded by a purchase under the Rapid Financing Instrument on May 11, 2020, at 100 percent of quota. Both reviews of the SBA were concluded on time and all program conditionality was met. The arrangement expired on June 25, 2021.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The new Dirham Monetary Framework developed by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates (CBUAE) operationalizes a floor system and provides a complete set of instruments to manage liquidity under a fixed exchange rate arrangement and capital mobility. This technical assistance report presents an overview of this operational framework and a set of recommendations to streamline and further improve it especially with regards to: (i) the discontinuation of the FX swap facility; (ii) the issuance of central bank bills; (iii) the design of fine-tuning operations; and (iv) the design and calibration of the reserves requirements. Moreover, the report provides a complete liquidity forecasting infrastructure, using cutting-edge statistical methods, to project the changes in the supply of banks reserves through the forecast of the three main autonomous factors. It also offers a statistical approach to estimate the optimal liquidity surplus and calibrate the operational mix between the different liquidity absorptions instruments. At last, the report investigates the functioning and structure of the UAE money markets.