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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) was conducted amid an economic rebound two years into the COVID-19 pandemic that had a limited impact on the financial sector. Several member states have experienced political instability, with coups in Burkina Faso and Mali leading to economic sanctions for the latter, and an attempted coup in Guinea-Bissau. Yet, short of further political deterioration, economic recovery is expected to persist. The last FSAP was conducted in 2008.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) carried out a targeted evaluation of issues relating to the effectiveness of banking regulation and supervision in the United Kingdom. It leverages on the 2016 FSAP which concluded that the United Kingdom (U.K.) had a high degree of compliance with the 2012 Basel Core Principles (BCPs) with some shortcomings. The 2021 FSAP reviewed the progress in addressing them and examined the main supervisory and regulatory developments since the last FSAP. The FSAP evaluation also focuses on steps taken to minimize disruptions in the U.K. banking system at the end of the Brexit transition period, and on the regulatory and supervisory measures introduced to contain spillovers from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on the U.K. banking system.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The United Kingdom faces significant money laundering threats from foreign criminal proceeds, owing to its status as a global financial center, but the authorities have a strong understanding of these risks. The authorities estimated the realistic possibility of hundreds of billions of pounds of illicit proceeds being laundered in their jurisdiction. The money laundering risks facing the United Kingdom include illicit proceeds from foreign crimes such as transnational organized crime, overseas corruption, and tax crimes. Financial services, trust, and company service providers (TCSPs), accountancy and legal sectors are high-risk for money laundering, with also significant emerging risks coming from cryptoassets. Some Crown Dependencies (CDs) and British Overseas Territories (BOTs) have featured in U.K. money laundering investigations. Brexit and COVID pandemic have an impact upon the money laundering risks in the United Kingdom. The authorities nevertheless have demonstrated a deep and robust experience in assessing and understanding their ML/TF risks. Leveraging technology tools such as big data and machine learning to analyze cross-border payments may add further dimension to their risk assessments. This technical note (TN) will focus on key aspects of the United Kingdom’s anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime: risk-based AML/CFT supervision, entity transparency and international cooperation.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note presents an assessment of Regulation, Supervision and Systemic Risk Monitoring in New Zealand. The overall regulatory framework for asset management is well developed, but would benefit from some enhancements to prevent the buildup of risks. The provision of custody services does not require a license in New Zealand, and custodians therefore fall outside the direct supervision of the Financial Markets Authority (FMA). They are neither subject to prudential requirements nor to ongoing supervision by any other authority. Given that custodians perform key functions regarding safeguarding investors’ assets, the government should require that these entities be licensed and subject to ongoing supervision by the FMA.
International Monetary Fund
This technical note highlights the financial sector assessment program update of Austria with factual update for effective banking supervision. Financial sector regulation and supervision should be conducted in the general public interest. Although authorities have acted effectively in recent cases of major problems, it is recommended that, within the legal framework in place, a set of practical provisions and procedures be elaborated for an orderly exit in case of failures and other stress situations.
International Monetary Fund
The 2002 Financial Stability Assessment Program (FSAP) found that the Croatian financial system was resilient, but vulnerabilities remain. The authorities have been proactive in addressing macroeconomic and financial vulnerabilities associated with rapid credit growth and have also taken prudential measures on contingency planning with supervisory authorities of foreign banks coupled with efforts to enhance risk awareness and strengthen home-host coordination. The Croatian National Bank (CNB) has put in place an effective bank supervision framework. The assessment reflected a legal and regulatory framework together with banking supervision practices of the Croatian authorities.