Middle East and Central Asia > Kazakhstan, Republic of

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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Activity returned to its pre-COVID level in 2021. Inflation remains well above the NBK’s 4–6 percent target band, and spillovers from sanctions on Russia will exacerbate price pressures and weaken economic growth in 2022. Kazakhstan benefits from strong fiscal and external buffers but risks to the outlook are elevated due to the uncertain impact on Kazakhstan of the sanctions on Russia and heightened domestic tensions since the January social unrest episode. In the medium term, non-oil growth under the baseline is expected to converge to about 4 percent. Sustainable growth will require greater economic diversification. Climate-related challenges are acute for Kazakhstan given its outsized hydrocarbon sector, high per-capita greenhouse gas emissions, and low domestic energy prices.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper evaluates observance of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision in the Russian Federation. The legal framework currently in place provides the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) with necessary powers and responsibilities. The CBR may authorize banks, conduct ongoing supervision, oversee compliance with laws, and undertake corrective action to address safety and soundness. Major new reforms increase many aspects of the CBR’s duties and powers, although implementation has not yet been tested in all cases. The Russian licensing regime for banks appears exhaustive. However, the legal regime for major acquisitions was found to be weak.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that against the backdrop of external shocks, economic growth and inflation in Kazakhstan have decelerated. Financial conditions have tightened, and external imbalances are emerging. Real GDP growth slowed to an annualized 2 percent during the first quarter of 2015, down from about 4 percent in 2014 and 6 percent in 2013. In addition to weaker external demand, slower growth was driven by the impact of lower income and profitability and confidence effects on private consumption and domestic investment. Real GDP growth is projected to decelerate to 2 percent in 2015, owing to weaker demand from Russia and China, lower oil prices, confidence effects, and continuing delays in the Kashagan oil field.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Kyrgyz Republic’s Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility. Following exceptionally strong performance in 2013, growth is moderating to a more sustainable pace. The program is broadly on track, with all end-December 2013 quantitative performance criteria and all but one indicative targets (IT) met for end-December 2013. Although three March 2014 ITs were missed, since then there has been progress in rebuilding reserves and enhancing tax collections. The two structural benchmarks for end-December were met. The IMF staff supports the completion of the sixth and final review.
International Monetary Fund
This paper presents a Detailed Assessment and Updates of Financial Sector Standards and Codes for Kazakhstan. The assessment reveals that although Kazakhstan’s banking system is liquid, there are significant variations from bank to bank, with the distinctions between the tenge and foreign exchange liquidity being quite important. An appropriate body of commercial law is in place, and both banks and the supervisory authority express general satisfaction with the functioning of the systems for registration of collateral and enforcement of security interests.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper focuses on the Doha Development Agenda. The paper highlights that over the past 20 years, world trade has grown twice as fast as world real GDP, deepening economic integration and raising living standards. The paper underscores that the launch of a new trade round in Doha in November 2001 was a major breakthrough following the debacle in Seattle in 1999. The new round places the needs and interests of developing countries at the heart of its work, but a successful outcome for rich and poor nations alike is by no means a foregone conclusion.
Mr. George T. Abed and Mr. Hamid R Davoodi
Recent studies have highlighted the adverse impact of corruption on economic performance. This paper advances the hypothesis that corruption is largely a symptom of underlying weaknesses in public policies and institutions, a formulation that provides deeper insights into economic performance than do measures of “perceived corruption.” The hypothesis is tested by assessing the relative importance of structural reforms vs. corruption in explaining macroeconomic performance in the transition economies. The paper finds that for four widely used measures of economic performance—growth, inflation, the fiscal balance, and foreign direct investment—structural reforms tend to dominate the corruption variable.