Mr. Jose Martelino, Mr. S. Nuri Erbas, Mr. Adnan Mazarei, Ms. Sena Eken, and Mr. Paul Cashin
This paper provides background information on the Lebanese economy, based on an analysis of the economic consequences of war, and discusses several issues that will be central to Lebanon's prospects for recovery
Mr. Charalambos Christofides, Mr. Paul Mylonas, Ms. Inci Ötker, Mr. Liam P. Ebrill, Mr. Gerd Schwartz, and Mr. Ajai Chopra
Poland's economy rebounded dramatically in 1992-93, several years after the nation embarded on a comprehensive program of economic transformation. This paper describes Polan's steps in the areas of public finance, monetary policy and financial sector reform, trade and exchange rate policy, and microeconomic liberalization, as well as the social impact of transition.
Mr. Padej Sukachevin, Mr. John E Leimone, Mr. F. Rozwadowski, and Miss Elizabeth Milne
This paper is based on an IMF staff report prepared in connection with the application of the Mongolian People's Republic (Mongolia) for membership in the International Monetary Fund. It reviews Mongolia's political and economic history, highlighting its changing economic structure following World War II and its recent efforts to introduce market mechanisms.
This paper is based on an internal report prepared by the IMF staff in connection with the application of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (Czechoslovakia) for membership in the IMF. The paper surveys the economic system that had developed up to the time of the reforms begun in 1987 and outlines the economy's performance during 1945–1985. It then discusses the economic developments of 1985–1990, with separate sections on output, prices, public finance, money, and the balance of payments. Prices served mainly as an instrument of central planning: each price was set independently and a change in one price had no influence on other prices. The annual foreign exchange plan, derived from the state plan, strictly controlled foreign exchange transactions. It specified imports and exports of goods and services by enterprises for the convertible and nonconvertible area. The exact modalities of the denationalization scheme have not yet been determined. However, consideration is being given to a scheme whereby state enterprises would be transformed into joint stock companies, and “ownership vouchers” would be distributed to the population which would entitle their holders to purchase stock in these companies.
This paper presents an overview of the economy of Hungary. The paper highlights that during the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1976–80), actual growth rates for almost all major plan aggregates remained below the targets. The lower targets set for the increase in both consumption and investment in the 1976–80 plan relative to the rates achieved during 1971–75, reflected the government’s policy of moderating the growth of domestic demand. The actual average annual growth rate for investment closely approximated, whereas that of private consumption fell far short of the plan targets.