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Mr. Amgad Hegazy and Arturo Navarro
Strong governance frameworks for public enterprises have long been an anchor of stability and efficiency underpinning their financial operations and performance. Cross-country experiences with the adoption of robust legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements—in line with international best practices— proved critical in reducing well-known risks and vulnerabilities from such companies, clarifying the role of the state, improving the management of state assets, and ensuring a level playing field for the private sector to prosper. Moldova’s large public enterprise sector of over 900 companies faces elevated risks that amplify fiscal and macroeconomic vulnerabilities and undermine market competition, productivity, and private investment. Moldova stands to greatly benefit from strengthening its public corporate governance regime to put its public enterprises on a stronger footing, address vulnerabilities, and improve market structure.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, Review Department, International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., and International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Despite a long history of program engagement, the Fund has not developed guidance on program design in members of currency unions. The Fund has engaged with members of the four currency unions—the Central African Economic and Monetary Community, the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union, the European Monetary Union, and the West African Economic and Monetary Union—under Fund-supported programs. In some cases, union-wide institutions supported their members in undertaking adjustment under Fund-supported programs. As such, several programs incorporated—on an ad hoc basis—critical policy actions that union members had delegated. Providing general guidance on program design for members in a currency union context would fill a gap in Fund policy and help ensure consistent, transparent, and evenhanded treatment across Fund-supported programs. This paper considers two options on when and how the Fund should seek policy assurances from union-level institutions in programs of currency union members. Option 1 would involve amending the Conditionality Guidelines, which would allow the use of standard conditionality tools with respect to actions by union-level institutions. Option 2—which staff prefers—proposes formalizing current practices and providing general guidance regarding principles and modalities on policy assurances from union-level institutions in support of members’ adjustment programs. Neither option would infringe upon the independence (or legally-provided autonomy) of union-level institutions, since the institutions would decide what measures or policy actions to take—just as any independent central bank or monetary authority does, for example, in non-CU members.
International Monetary Fund
The 2011 Article IV Consultation reports that Panama’s economy has rebounded strongly from the 2009 slowdown, and is one of the fastest-growing in the region. Rapid growth and prudent fiscal policy have lowered public debt to less than 40 percent of GDP, and rating agencies have placed Panama’s sovereign debt one notch above investment grade. The neutral fiscal stance envisaged for 2012–13 is broadly appropriate, though a tighter stance would have been preferable to rebuild buffers and contain inflation.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes medium-term fiscal sustainability in Trinidad and Tobago. The paper focuses on the challenge of distributing the nonrenewable resource wealth across generations. Its recommendations are geared toward the goal of intergenerational distribution and therefore focus on the transformation of the natural resource wealth into other assets. The paper reviews the main aspects of the monetary transmission mechanism in Trinidad and Tobago, and also offers some suggestions to improve the effectiveness of monetary policy transmission.
Ms. Ling H Tan and Carlos D. Ramírez
Government-linked companies (GLCs) have a significant presence in Singapore's corporate sector. Unlike parastatals in many other countries, these companies are run on a competitive, commercial basis, ostensibly without government privileges. Based on data from publicly listed GLCs and non-GLCs, we indeed find no evidence that GLCs have easier access to credit. However, we do find that being a GLC is rewarded in financial markets with a positive premium, over and above what can be explained by the usual determinants of Tobin's q.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes Ecuador’s fiscal policy using the concepts of the fiscal stance and fiscal impulse adjusted for movements in the real effective exchange rate. It finds that fiscal policy has been expansionary in 2000 and 2001. The paper shows that the growth of gross fixed investment was relatively strong during the 1970s; thereafter it slowed, particularly in the public sector. The paper also explores the evolution of oil reserves in recent years and the projections for the medium term.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Ethiopia during 1995–99. It provides an update on macroeconomic performance and structural reforms during FY96–FY99 (fiscal year ended July 7), when Ethiopia—as Africa’s second most populous country and one of the world’s poorest nations—continued to make strides in transitioning to a market-based economy and alleviating widespread poverty. The paper also highlights the major challenges in the areas of financial sector liberalization, civil service reform, and privatization.
International Monetary Fund
This Background Paper and Statistical Appendix describes economic and financial developments in Botswana during 1993–94. Although real GDP in Botswana recovered somewhat to 2.5 percent in 1993/94, compared with a decline of 1.5 percent in 1992/93, this outcome represented a decline in real GDP per capita for the second consecutive year. The government sector continued to expand relatively fast as the civil service continued to grow fairly rapidly, leading to an increasing share in the nonmining GDP, which rose from 34.8 percent in 1992/93 to 36.1 percent in 1993/94.