The report describes the policy framework for the Interim Afghanistan National Development Strategy (I-ANDS) and the vision for Afghanistan's developments. It reviews the progress under I-ANDS, analyzes the macroeconomic environment, characteristics of poverty and the policy goals, assesses the national budgeting framework through which the I-ANDS will be integrated into Afghanistan’s financial planning mechanisms to ensure both fiscal sustainability and financial independence, and also summarizes how government policies and programs will be transparently monitored, coordinated, refined, and revised in the full ANDS.
Islamic banks are prohibited from charging or paying interest, and thus can operate only on the basis of profit-sharing arrangements. This paper provides a brief survey of the theory and practice of Islamic banking. It covers developments in Islamic banking since the mid-1970s, how such banks operate, and the analytical underpinnings of a financial system based on Islamic principles. Finally, the future of Islamic banking is assessed.
This study was prepared by Zubair Iqbal of the Middle Eastern Department and Abbas Mirakhor of the Research Department. To collect information and views for the study, the authors held discussions with the authorities and representatives of commercial banks in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in Pakistan.