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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Since 2018, Haiti has experienced a protracted political crisis, repeated country lock-downs and civil unrest, an earthquake, the assassination of its president and a deep recession. Policymakers face economic imbalances, a surge in gang violence, worsening poverty conditions, and dire social challenges aggravated by years of political instability.
International Monetary Fund
This paper proposes a comprehensive Strategy to strengthen IMF support to FCS in accordance with the Fund’s mandate and comparative advantage. The Strategy is a response to the Board-endorsed recommendations of the 2018 Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) Report on The IMF and Fragile States. To achieve these goals, the Strategy will benefit from additional resources reflected in the FY23-25 Medium-Term Budget, as per the budget augmentation framework discussed by the Board in December 2021. The Strategy also provides measures to better support staff working on FCS. Given the inherent risks in FCS engagement, the Strategy will be phased in starting in FY22, with implementation gradually accelerating between FY23-FY25.
Mr. Serhan Cevik and Tianle Zhu
Monetary independence is at the core of the macroeconomic policy trilemma stating that an independent monetary policy, a fixed exchange rate and free movement of capital cannot exist at the same time. This study examines the relationship between monetary autonomy and inflation dynamics in a panel of Caribbean countries over the period 1980–2017. The empirical results show that monetary independence is a significant factor in determining inflation, even after controlling for macroeconomic developments. In other words, greater monetary policy independence, measured as a country’s ability to conduct its own monetary policy for domestic purposes independent of external monetary influences, leads to lower consumer price inflation. This relationship—robust to alternative specifications and estimation methodologies—has clear policy implications, especially for countries that maintain pegged exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar with a critical bearing on monetary autonomy.
International Monetary Fund
Longer-term program engagement (LTPE) occurs when a member has spent at least seven of the past 10 years under Fund-supported financial arrangements. In response to the Executive Board’s request for periodic updates on the incidence of LTPEs, this is the fifteenth such report and provides information through September 1, 2014
Mr. Adolfo Barajas and Mr. Armando Méndez Morales
Dollarization of liabilities (DL) has emerged as a key factor in explaining the vulnerability of emerging markets to financial and currency crises. "Usual suspects" of causing DL comprise "fatalistic" determinants such as a long history of unsound macroeconomic policies and development and institutional factors, aided by moral hazard opportunities related to government guarantees. This paper assesses empirically the relevance of these factors relative to alternative explanations. Based on a sample of Latin American countries, we find that ongoing central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market, relative market power of borrowers, and financial penetration are at least as important in explaining DL.
International Monetary Fund
This note reviews the effects of dollarization on the ability of the Bank of the Republic of Haiti (BRH) to conduct monetary policy and the risks to macroeconomic stability and the banking system. Haiti's external indebtedness has been compared with that of countries eligible for debt relief under the Initiative for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). Haiti's accession to the Caribbean Common Market and the impact of trade liberalization measures on the strategic rice sector is discussed. The causes of poverty in Haiti are also analyzed.