This paper presents an update to the report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Banking Supervision, Payment Systems, and Securities Regulation for Croatia. The 2001 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission assessed Croatia’s compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCP). The results suggested that most of the core principles were either observed or broadly observed, the main exception being cooperation with foreign supervisory agencies, which was not possible under the then-existing legal framework.
Poverty risk is most marked for children, displaced persons and returnees, unemployed, and people with low education. Basic goals of the macroeconomic framework of the mid-term development strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina are to reduce the overall public expenditures, lower the public debt, and to bring the current account deficit to a sustainable level through fiscal consolidation. The strategy is to attract more foreign investment, create conditions for a more efficient privatization process, and to ensure new cycles of donor assistance.
A reduced-form model approach was used to estimate the trade balance response to permanent domestic currency depreciation. For this purpose, long-run and short-run effects were estimated, using three modeling methods along with two real effective exchange rate measures. On average, a 1 percent permanent depreciation improves the equilibrium trade balance by between 0.94 percent and 1.3 percent. The new equilibrium is established after approximately 2.5 years. Evidence of the J-curve is also found. Overall, in the light of the results obtained, it is questionable whether permanent depreciation is desirable to improve the trade balance, taking into account potential adverse effects on the rest of the economy.
For the republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) as for many other transition economies, an important step in introducing a more market-oriented system was the restructuring of their budget systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the process of budget system reform during the transition period extending from the time they emerged from the collapse of the SFRY in 1989 until the end of 2002. For at least a decade of this period, the Fiscal Affairs Department of the IMF has been providing technical assistance (TA) to these countries to facilitate such reforms. Based on the material generated by this effort, the authors offer a review of the progress made and an assessment of the reform elements still to be completed. Given that the former Yugoslav republics all commenced the reform process with the same institutions, this paper offers a unique opportunity to analyze the critical elements in successful budget system reform. An attempt is made to explain the varying degrees of success experienced by different countries, and a reform agenda is suggested to guide future TA.