Asia and Pacific > Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China

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  • Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies x
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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Abstract

This report emphasizes the environmental, fiscal, economic, and administrative case for using carbon taxes, or similar pricing schemes such as emission trading systems, to implement climate mitigation strategies. It provides a quantitative framework for understanding their effects and trade-offs with other instruments and applies it to the largest advanced and emerging economies. Alternative approaches, like “feebates” to impose fees on high polluters and give rebates to cleaner energy users, can play an important role when higher energy prices are difficult politically. At the international level, the report calls for a carbon price floor arrangement among large emitters, designed flexibly to accommodate equity considerations and constraints on national policies. The report estimates the consequences of carbon pricing and redistribution of its revenues for inequality across households. Strategies for enhancing the political acceptability of carbon pricing are discussed, along with supporting measures to promote clean technology investments.

Kenneth S. Chan and Kee Jin Ngiam
The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) has a long-standing policy of controlling bank lending in Singapore dollars to nonresidents and to residents who use the funds outside Singapore. While the control may prevent the internationalization of the Singapore dollar and contain exchange rate volatility, it can hinder the deepening and widening of the financial markets in Singapore. This paper suggests three policy options that would allow traders and investors to borrow Singapore dollars without any restrictions, while making it costly for speculators since their activities can cause exchange rate volatility which arguably imposes external costs to society.