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International Monetary Fund
Benin, a member of the CFA franc zone, has experienced uneven economic progress over the last several decades. It has a long history of engagement with the IMF. This ex post assessment update covers primarily the implementation of the program supported by the 2005–09 poverty reduction growth facility (PRGF) arrangement. In the fiscal area, the overall objective was to increase poverty-reducing spending while maintaining the sustainability of public debt. Prior to the global financial crisis, Benin's economic growth accelerated steadily. External shocks explain some of the growth's underperformance.
International Monetary Fund
The economic recovery in Côte d’Ivoire is crucial to growth throughout the subregion. The fiscal results and mobilized domestic financing enabled the authorities to make payments to the World Bank and AfDB and reduce domestic arrears. Reporting on quasi-fiscal cocoa levies has improved. Energy sector audits are being finalized, and reporting on financial flows has improved. In view of the efforts made at both political and economic management fronts, authorities appreciated the Executive Board’s support for an additional assistance under the IMF’s Emergency Post-Conflict Assistance (EPCA) program.
Anubha Dhasmana
Foreign aid flows to poor, aid-dependent economies are highly volatile and pro-cyclical. Shortfalls in aid coincide with shortfalls in GDP and government revenues. This increases the consumption volatility in aid dependent countries, thereby causing substantial welfare losses. This paper finds that indexing aid flows to exogenous shocks like a change in the terms of trade can significantly improve the welfare of aid-dependent country by lowering its output and consumption volatility. Compared to the benchmark specification with stochastic aid flows, indexation of aid flows to terms of trade shocks can reduce the cost of business cycle fluctuations in the recipient country by four percent of permanent consumption. Moreover, use of indexed aid can allow donors to reduce the aid flows by three percent without lowering the level of welfare in the recipient country.
International Monetary Fund
A major element of the persistent fiscal imbalances in Guinea-Bissau is the relatively low level of revenue compared with other sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Fiscal revenues, including grants, trended downward significantly in Guinea-Bissau from 1991 through 2005, especially during the last five years. Nontax revenues are stagnant as a proportion of GDP as a result of weak fisheries administration and control. Tax revenues as a proportion of GDP are relatively low in Guinea-Bissau even compared with other low-income countries.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
The three-year arrangement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that was approved by the Executive Board of the IMF in March 1998 in support of Cote d'lvoire's adjustment efforts went off track after the first year. In the cocoa and coffee sectors, the measures that were supposed to accompany the liberalization process, such as the strengthening of producer organizations and the rehabilitation of rural infrastructure, were not fully implemented. Executive Directors welcomed the conclusion of discussions on a Staff-Monitored Program (SMP).
International Monetary Fund
The statistical data on real GDP by sector, nominal GDP by sector, investment-savings balance, output of main crops, stocks, production, and uses of cashew nuts, industrial and artisanal fishing, electricity and water production, alternative consumer price index, central government operations, revenue and expenditure, civil service employment and developments, and the status of public enterprise reform of Guinea-Bissau are presented in this paper. The data on monetary survey, summary accounts of the central bank, balance of payments, and related economic indices are also presented.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Guinea–Bissau during the 1990s. Following mixed economic performance in 1991–92, a period of financial stabilization in 1993–94 led to an economic program that was supported by a three-year annual arrangement under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility approved in January 1995. After some difficulties in early 1995, the program objectives for budgetary revenue, the external account, and real growth rate were surpassed. Economic developments were generally favorable in 1996 and 1997 although inflation continued to be a source of concern until mid-1997.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.