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Mrs. Nujin Suphaphiphat and Hiroaki Miyamoto
While unemployment rates in Europe declined after the global financial crisis until 2018/19, the incidence of long-term unemployment, the share of people who have been unemployed for more than one year to the total unemployed, remained high. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic could aggravate the long-term unemployment. This paper explores factors associated with long-term unemployment in European countries, using panel of 25 European countries over the period 2000–18. We find that skill mismatches, labor market matching efficiency, and labor market policies are associated with the incidence of long-term unemployment. Among different types of active labor market policies, training and start-up incentives are found to be effective in reducing long-term unemployment.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Rigidities in Greece’s product and labor markets leading to economic imbalances and the significance of reforms to these markets are played out in the first paper. The second paper describes the problems, progress to date, and agenda for work in Greece’s revenue administration and how this effort has been achieved primarily by raising tax rates to high levels and reducing wages, pensions, and other spending. The third paper is on the need for designing and implementing debt restructuring frameworks as well as improving banks’ loan resolution practices so that Greece’s banks are positioned to support the economic recovery.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper provides updates on Greece’s financial stability framework. The paper highlights that the Bank of Greece (BoG) has strengthened the financial stability framework over recent years. In addition to the liquidity provided by the euro system through its regular refinancing operations and standing facilities, the BoG can provide emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) to financial institutions. In response to the global financial crisis, the authorities have assisted bank capital and funding. A manual has been developed to monitor financial stability and spell out contingency plans for the management of crises.