Africa > Ghana

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Kenneth Egesa and Howard Murad
Private cross-border financial flows and stocks have grown to account for an increasingly significant part of overall transactions and positions in many African countries. Direct reporting through enterprise surveys has become a key data source to enable them to be measured accurately. The paper describes a multi-year technical assistance project in The Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, and Nigeria, where annual enterprise surveys are now established. To varying degrees, the survey results have been incorporated into the balance of payments and International Investment Position statistics. The case studies may serve as a useful reference for other countries embarking on efforts to establish direct reporting of cross-border financial flows and stocks.
Olatundun Janet Adelegan
This paper examines the impact of regional cross-listing on stock prices. The sample consists of sub- Saharan African firms that have cross-listed during the period 1992-2008. Using event study methodology, the study finds positive abnormal returns around the date of the regional cross-listing of stocks. The positive announcement period effect, together with the normal post cross-listing performance, shows that regional cross-listing increases firm value. Overall, this provides evidence that firms benefit from listing outside their home market and need to be taken into consideration by SSA country authorities as they seek a regional approach to stock market development. Thus, policy makers of both the countries of primary listing (home country) and secondary listing (host country) need the right policy handles to conceptualize, facilitate and steer regional cross-listing efforts by firms. Through complementary policy-based efforts, policy makers can set the stage for regional cross-listings and harness the numerous related benefits.
International Monetary Fund
This study analyzes the impact of regional cross-listing of stocks on the depth of the stock markets in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It analyzes data from 1990 to 2007 for a panel of 13 stock markets in SSA countries, only some of which have regional cross-listings. Using event study methodology, the paper finds significant positive effects in measures of stock market depth around regional cross-listing events. Overall, growth in the regional crosslisting of stocks facilitates stock market deepening, and the stock markets of countries with regional cross-listings perform better than those without. The study thus suggests that SSA countries can benefit from putting in place the necessary conditions for promoting regional cross-listings and thereby deepening their stock markets. These include sound legal and regulatory frameworks, macroeconomic and political stability, harmonization of listing rules, accounting laws and disclosure requirements across the region, and strong money markets.
Charles Komla Adjasi and Charles Amo Yartey
This paper examines the economic importance of stock markets in Africa. It discusses policy options for promoting the development of the stock market in Africa. The results of the paper show that the stock markets have contributed to the financing of the growth of large corporations in certain African countries. An econometric investigation of the impact of stock markets on growth in selected African countries, however, finds inconclusive evidence even though stock market value traded seem to be positively and significantly associated with growth. African stock exchanges now face the challenge of integration and need better technical and institutional development to address the problem of low liquidity. Preconditions for successful regional approaches include the harmonization of legislations such as bankruptcy and accounting laws and a liberalized trade regime. Robust electronic trading systems and central depository systems will be important. Further domestic financial liberalization such as steps to improve the legal and accounting framework, private sector credit evaluation capabilities, and public sector regulatory oversight would also be beneficial.
Charles Amo Yartey
This paper examines the corporate financing pattern in Ghana. In particular, it investigates whether Singh's theoretically anomalous findings that developing country firms make considerably more use of external finance and new equity issues than developed country firms to finance asset growth hold in the case of Ghana. Replicating Singh's methodology, our results show that compared with corporations in advanced countries, the average listed Ghanaian firm finances its growth of total assets mainly from short-term debt. The stock market, however, is the most important source of long-term finance for listed Ghanaian firms. Overall, the evidence in this paper suggests that the stock market is a surprisingly important source of finance for funding corporate growth and that stock market development in Ghana has been important.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This study provides information on official financing and the debt situation of developing countries. It discusses issues related to trade finance in financial crises, and the challenge of maintaining external debt sustainability in debtor countries. It updates the 2001 edition of Official Financing for Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Speaking at the Thirty-Third Washington Conference of the Council of the Americas on April 29, IMF Managing Director Horst Köhler expressed optimism about Latin America’s growth prospects. Despite difficult economic times, he said, the people have indicated no desire to return to past authoritarian regimes, and several countries have recently reaffirmed their commitment to a market-based system. A summary of Köhle’s address, delivered at the U.S. Department of State, follows.
International Monetary Fund
This paper examines Ghana’s Fourth Review Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Requests for Waiver of Performance Criteria and for Extension of the Commitment Period. Most end-August 2001 quantitative performance criteria were met, but waivers are requested for nonobservance of two structural performance criteria and the ceilings on short-term official external debt and the stock of arrears in the road sector. The authorities’ program for 2002 seeks to consolidate on the macroeconomic gains of 2001, accelerate structural reforms, and create the conditions for faster growth and poverty reduction.

Abstract

Mounting external debt and large-scale capital flight have been at the forefront of Africa's economic problems since the 1980s. External Debt and Capital Flight in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by S. Ibi Ajayi and Mohsin S. Khan, takes a penetrating look at debt and capital flight during the 1990s in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. The book describes the size and composition of debt in the selected countries and examines the causes of the debt buildup. It also assesses the extent of capital flight and suggests ways of stemming the flight of financial resources.

Mr. Arne L Bigsten
This paper examines dynamic patterns of investment in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe, assessing the consistency of those patterns with different adjustment cost structures. Using survey data on manufactured firms, we document the importance of zero investment episodes and lumpy investment. The proportion of firms experiencing large investment spikes is significant in explaining aggregate manufacturing investment. Taken together, evidence from descriptive statistics, average investment regressions modeling the response to capital imbalance, and transition data analysis indicate that irreversibility is an important factor considered by firms when making investment plans. The picture is not unanimous however, and some explanations for the mixed results are proposed.