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Ruud A. de Mooij, Mr. Alexander D Klemm, and Ms. Victoria J Perry

Abstract

The book describes the difficulties of the current international corporate income tax system. It starts by describing its origins and how changes, such as the development of multinational enterprises and digitalization have created fundamental problems, not foreseen at its inception. These include tax competition—as governments try to attract tax bases through low tax rates or incentives, and profit shifting, as companies avoid tax by reporting profits in jurisdictions with lower tax rates. The book then discusses solutions, including both evolutionary changes to the current system and fundamental reform options. It covers both reform efforts already under way, for example under the Inclusive Framework at the OECD, and potential radical reform ideas developed by academics.

Mr. Tamim Bayoumi

Abstract

There have been numerous books examining the 2008 financial crisis from either a U.S. or European perspective. Tamim Bayoumi is the first to explain how the Euro crisis and U.S. housing crash were, in fact, parasitically intertwined. Starting in the 1980s, Bayoumi outlines the cumulative policy errors that undermined the stability of both the European and U.S. financial sectors, highlighting the catalytic role played by European mega banks that exploited lax regulation to expand into the U.S. market and financed unsustainable bubbles on both continents. U.S. banks increasingly sold sub-par loans to under-regulated European and U.S. shadow banks and, when the bubbles burst, the losses whipsawed back to the core of the European banking system. A much-needed, fresh look at the origins of the crisis, Bayoumi’s analysis concludes that policy makers are ignorant of what still needs to be done both to complete the cleanup and to prevent future crises.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper provides a review of the liquidity provision framework and recent developments in the United Kingdom. The Bank of England’s (BoE’s) Sterling Monetary Framework is the mechanism used in the United Kingdom to direct liquidity provision. The BoE’s relatively wide-ranging and accessible liquidity insurance framework raises three key questions and four other issues relevant to financial stability. The quantification of implications of the liquidity framework for the BoE balance sheet is still a work in progress. Safeguards are generally sufficient, although the BoE should ensure that lower level of supervisory scrutiny directed at small- and medium-sized enterprises does not adversely impact its horizon-scanning for firms at risk of requiring liquidity support.
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Abstract

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides background detail of the financial statements for the IMF’s activities during the most recent financial year. This publication updates a previous report entitled Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, first published in 1986 and last issued in 2001 (the sixth edition). That 2001 report reflected the seismic shifts in the global economy and in the IMF’s structure and operations that occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union and the various currency and financial crises of the 1990s. This revised and updated report covers more recent developments, including measures taken in response to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the institutional reforms aimed at ensuring that the IMF’s governance structure evolves in line with developments in the global economy, as well as reforms to the IMF’s income model.

Mr. Seok G Park
Although central banks have recently taken unconventional policy actions to try to shore up macroeconomic and financial stability, little theory is available to assess the consequences of such measures. This paper offers a theoretical model with which such policies can be analyzed. In particular, the paper shows that in the absence of the fiscal authorities' full backing of the central bank's balance sheet, strange things can happen. For instance, an exit from quantitative easing could be inflationary and central banks cannot successfully unwind inflated balance sheets. Therefore, the fiscal authorities' full backing of the monetary authorities' quasi-fiscal operations is a pre-condition for effective monetary policy.
Ms. Dawn Elizabeth Rehm and Ms. Taryn R Parry

Abstract

The Manual on Fiscal Transparency provides an authoritative account and explanation of the revised IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency (the Code). It expands and updates the 2001 edition of the Manual, which has been used by countries undertaking assessments of the transparency of their fiscal management practices (including so-called fiscal ROSCs), legislatures, civil society organizations, economists, and financial analysts. Numerous new examples of implementation of the Code by countries in all regions of the world and at different levels of development are included. The Manual, which reflects a public comment process, is also supplemented by the revised Guide on Resource Revenue Transparency. It identifies numerous benefits from fiscal transparency, including providing citizens with information to hold governments accountable for their policy choices, informing and improving the quality of economic policy decisions, highlighting potential risks to the fiscal outlook, and easing a country’s access to international capital markets.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
MD meets SSA leaders; ART. IV: Belgium, Ecuador, Finland, Nepal; U.K. policy frameworks; Ghana: quasi-fiscal activities; Africa and Doha Round; euro area product markets; ASI: FDI; prescriptions for financial stability.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This Manual provides guidance on the implementation of the Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency by setting out its principles and practices in detail, and establishing priorities for improving fiscal transparency. Serving as a reference for economists and financial analysts on the various aspects of fiscal transparency, the Manual includes a section on open budget preparation, execution, and reporting, and presents the OECD’s best practices for achieving budget transparency.

Mr. Dong He
This paper discusses operational aspects of official emergency liquidity support to individual institutions under stress. It argues that properly designed lending procedures, clearly laid-out authority and accountability, as well as disclosures rules, will promote financial stability, reduce moral hazard, and protect the lender of last resort from undue political pressure. Although there may well be good reasons to maintain ambiguity over the conditions for assistance, there are important advantages for developing, and for transition economies to follow a rule-based approach by setting out ex ante the necessary conditions for support, while maintaining that meeting such conditions is not sufficient for receiving support.
Ms. G. G. Garcia
The paper surveys the characteristics of explicit systems of deposit insurance in 68 countries. It compares these actual practices with a set of best practices that has been adopted by IMF staff for their advice to member countries. These best practices seek to establish a system of deposit insurance that provides incentives for all parties—whether they are directly or indirectly affected by the guarantee—to keep the financial system sound. The paper discerns some convergence toward best practices in recent years, but notes several areas where improvements in the incentive structure are still necessary.