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Nicoletta Batini, Ian W.H. Parry, and Mr. Philippe Wingender
Denmark has a highly ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. While there is general agreement that carbon pricing should be the centerpiece of Denmark’s mitigation strategy, pricing needs to be effective, address equity and leakage concerns, and be reinforced by additional measures at the sectoral level. The strategy Denmark develops can be a good prototype for others to follow. This paper discusses mechanisms to scale up domestic carbon pricing, compensate households, and possibly combine pricing with a border carbon adjustment. It also recommends the use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives, particularly for transportation and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, though these schemes could also be applied more widely.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
COVID-19 pandemic: The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) work was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, so this Technical Note (TN) does not assess the impact of the crisis or the recent crisis-related policy measures. Nonetheless, given the FSAP’s focus on vulnerabilities and policy frameworks, the findings and recommendations of the TN remain pertinent. While Denmark’s institutional arrangements are uncommon, the authorities have undertaken several macroprudential measures since the last FSAP. The Minister for Industry, Business and Financial Affairs (MIBFA) has decision-making power over most macroprudential tools in Denmark, which is rare in international practice. However, the Systemic Risk Council (SRC), which includes members from the Danmarks Nationalbank (DN) and Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) plays an advisory role and has powers to give recommendations with a comply or explain mechanism. In recent years, the authorities have taken wide-ranging macroprudential policy actions in response to growing systemic vulnerabilities, which have seemed to slow down some of the riskier trends. More recently, in response to the Covid-19 crisis, countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB) has been fully released.