Finland has pledged to cut net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2035 and has sectoral targets for deploying electric vehicles, phasing out coal generation, and oil-based space heating. Fiscal policies at the national and sectoral level could play a critical role in achieving these objectives. Carbon dioxide emissions are already priced significantly in Finland but prices vary substantially across fuels and sectors. The paper discusses a reform to both scale up, and progressively harmonize, pricing while using revenues to address equity issues. It also discusses the potential use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives for the transportation, industry, building, forestry, and agricultural sectors.
Based on a permanent income analysis, Gagnon (2018) has prominently suggested that Norway has saved too much, thereby free-riding on the rest of the world for demand. Our public sector balance sheet analysis comes to the opposite conclusion, chiefly because it also accounts for future aging costs. Unsurprisingly, we find that Norway’s current assets exceed its liabilities by some 340 percent of mainland GDP. But its nonoil fiscal deficits have grown very large (to almost 8 percent of mainland GDP) and aging pressures are only commencing. Therefore, Norway’s intertemporal financial net worth (IFNW) is negative, at about -240 percent of mainland GDP. As IFNW represents an intertemporal budget constraint, this implies that Norway’s savings are likely insufficient to address aging costs without additional fiscal action.
Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden form a tightly integrated region which has strong ties with the euro area as well as some exposure to Russia. Using the IMF’s Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF), we examine spillovers the region could face, focusing on possible scenarios from the rest of the euro area and Russia, and the fall in global oil prices. We show that the spillovers from these scenarios differ in magnitude and impact, regardless of the high degree of integration among the four Nordic economies. These differences are driven by the fact that Denmark and Finland have no independent monetary policy, and Denmark and Norway are net energy exporters while Finland and Sweden are energy importers. We infer lessons for policy from the outcomes.
Finland’s 2008 Article IV Consultation shows that spillovers from the global turmoil are adversely affecting activity and may weaken the financial system. From a cyclical perspective, a fiscal structural loosening is warranted. Its effectiveness in Finland’s small, open economy would be limited in the absence of an EU-wide fiscal package. The authorities have been confident that an EU-coordinated budget expansion is in the works. There has been agreement that loosening should be designed to minimize damage to long-term fiscal sustainability.
The euro area recovered from the economic doldrums. Executive Directors welcomed the recovery, supported by strong financial conditions, global growth, and improved financial positions. They encouraged the reformed Stability and Growth Pact over fiscal policies, and underscored the need for accelerated fiscal consolidation and structural reforms. They pointed to the integrated National Reform Programs under the reformed Lisbon process and labor market reforms. Directors welcomed the progress in integrating Europe’s financial markets and the new Directive on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism.
The economic restructuring and expansion after the crisis reflected a combination of private sector initiative, solid macroeconomic management, including the shift from large deficits to significant surpluses of the general government, and structural reforms. High unemployment is one indication that structural rigidities continue to hamper Finland's output potential. In the face of high unemployment and rapid population aging, the discussions focused on supporting medium-term growth while securing long-term fiscal sustainability. Reflecting concerns about slowing growth, front-loaded expenditure increases, and tax cuts were at the center of the fiscal policy debate.
This Selected Issues paper estimates the potential output and the associated nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment in the euro area. The study presents a conceptual framework for analyzing currency movements, and highlights the transmission of import price shocks on consumer prices. The paper compares different measures of trend money growth, and analyzes the monetary conditions. The study describes the stability and growth pact, outlines a simple framework for studying fiscal policy behavior, and estimates European Union countries' past cyclical fiscal policy responses to output growth fluctuations.