Finland has pledged to cut net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2035 and has sectoral targets for deploying electric vehicles, phasing out coal generation, and oil-based space heating. Fiscal policies at the national and sectoral level could play a critical role in achieving these objectives. Carbon dioxide emissions are already priced significantly in Finland but prices vary substantially across fuels and sectors. The paper discusses a reform to both scale up, and progressively harmonize, pricing while using revenues to address equity issues. It also discusses the potential use of revenue-neutral feebate schemes to strengthen mitigation incentives for the transportation, industry, building, forestry, and agricultural sectors.
This paper provides an analysis of the Tribunal’s jurisprudence for the period is provided in an introductory chapter “Developments in the Jurisprudence of the International Monetary Fund Administrative Tribunal: 2006.” In deciding on an application, the Tribunal shall apply the internal law of the IMF, including generally recognized principles of international administrative law concerning judicial review of administrative acts. The guidelines provide for performance assessments at prescribed intervals during the fixed term and impose obligations on both the fixed-term appointee and supervisors. The Tribunal emphasized that the provisions governing the mandatory resignation and possible subsequent reemployment of staff who serve as Advisors to Executive Directors indicate that a staff member who so resigns has no assured right to resume employment as a member of the IMF’s staff. In order to assess whether an Applicant has initiated administrative review procedures on a timely basis, the Administrative Tribunal may be required to determine when the Applicant was on notice that he had been adversely affected by an administrative act of the IMF.
This paper provides a framework for examining environment taxes. It reviews the theoretical efficiency of three types of environment taxes: taxes on emissions or Pigouvian taxes; taxes on productive inputs or consumer goods whose use is related to environmental damage; and environment-related provisions in other taxes. A survey of environment taxes in 42 countries--drawn from developing countries, economies in transition, and industrial countries--illustrates that the use of environment taxes differs dramatically from the recommendations of environment tax theory. This divergence between the theory and practice of environment taxes can be attributed to several factors; environment taxes are difficult to implement, there are many factors that impede their effectiveness, and their introduction may be discouraged by their implications for other policy objectives.
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1. On February 13, 14 and 15, 2006, the Administrative Tribunal of the International Monetary Fund, composed of Judge Stephen M. Schwebel, President, and Judges Nisuke Ando and Michel Gentot, Associate Judges, met to adjudge the case brought against the International Monetary Fund by Mr. “O”, a former staff member of the Fund.
1. On February 13, 14 and 15, 2006, the Administrative Tribunal of the International Monetary Fund, composed of Judge Stephen M. Schwebel, President, and Judges Nisuke Ando and Michel Gentot, Associate Judges, met to adjudge the case brought against the International Monetary Fund by Ms. “T”, a former staff member of the Fund. It gave final consideration to its Judgment and adopted it on June 7, 2006.