Europe > Finland

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Corporate Taxation x
Clear All
Ms. Li Liu, Mr. Ben Lockwood, Miguel Almunia, and Eddy H.F. Tam
Using administrative tax records for UK businesses, we document both bunching in annual turnover below the VAT registration threshold and persistent voluntary registration by almost half of the firms below the threshold. We develop a conceptual framework that can simultaneously explain these two apparently conflicting facts. The framework also predicts that higher intermediate input shares, lower product-market competition and a lower share of business to consumer (B2C) sales lead to voluntary registration. The predictions are exactly the opposite for bunching. We test the theory using linked VAT and corporation tax records from 2004-2014, finding empirical support for these predictions.
Benjamin Carton, Emilio Fernández Corugedo, and Mr. Benjamin L Hunt
This paper uses a multi-region, forward-looking, DSGE model to estimate the macroeconomic impact of a tax reform that replaces a corporate income tax (CIT) with a destination-based cash-flow tax (DBCFT). Two key channels are at play. The first channel is the shift from an income tax to a cash-flow tax. This channel induces the corporate sector to invest more, boosting long-run potential output, GDP and consumption, but crowding out consumption in the short run as households save to build up the capital stock. The second channel is the shift from a taxable base that comprises domestic and foreign revenues, to one where only domestic revenues enter. This leads to an appreciation of the currency to offset the competitiveness boost afforded by the tax and maintain domestic investment-saving equilibrium. The paper demonstrates that spillover effects from the tax reform are positive in the long run as other countries’ exports benefit from additional investment in the country undertaking the reform and other countries’ domestic demand benefits from improved terms of trade. The paper also shows that there are substantial benefits when all countries undertake the reform. Finally, the paper demonstrates that in the presence of financial frictions, corporate debt declines under the tax reform as firms are no longer able to deduct interest expenses from their profits. In this case, the tax shifting results in an increase in the corporate risk premia, a near-term decline in output, and a smaller long-run increase in GDP.
Tehmina S. Khan and Mr. John Norregaard
This paper provides an overview of the key economic factors that shape tax policy reform in many high-income countries, developing countries, and/or transition economies. The paper describes and evaluates global and regional developments with respect to tax rates and revenue ratios over the last some 20 years, and discusses selected structural reform initiatives that have been high on the policy agenda over this period. In particular, it focuses on developments relating to experiments with the restructuring of corporate tax, the impact of corporate taxes on FDI, key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, as well as the worldwide spread of the VAT and policy developments associated with climate change and natural resource taxation.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper reviews some features of the labor market in Finland during the 1990s. In particular, it reviews patterns of employment and wage distribution across sectors. The paper describes the main regulatory features and formal structure of labor market arrangements: the wage negotiation process, employment legislation, income replacement regulations for the unemployed, and the recent changes in these areas introduced by the government. The paper also describes the structure of labor taxation, and reviews the theory and existing empirical evidence concerning the effects of taxation on labor market outcomes.