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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that in 2013, Estonia’s recovery from the crisis continued but at a slower pace. Real GDP growth was 0.8 percent, with private consumption providing the main support, although net exports made a negative contribution. Inflation declined to about 3½ percent, but stayed above the euro average. Public finances remained strong, with a fiscal deficit of 0.2 percent of GDP and a gross public debt of 10 percent of GDP. Real GDP growth is projected at 2.4 percent in 2014, rising toward expected potential growth of 3 to 3.5 percent in the medium term.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Iceland’s economy is on a path to recovery, but legacy vulnerabilities are weighing on growth. GDP growth—which reached 2.9 percent in 2011—slowed to 1.6 percent in 2012 amid private sector deleveraging and weak external demand. Unemployment has continued to decline however, standing at 5.1 percent in May, down from a peak of 9.2 percent in September 2010. Inflation has come down to 3.3 percent in June from a peak of 18.6 in January 2009, but remains above the central bank’s target of 2½ percent. The outlook is for modest growth, declining inflation, and improving fiscal and external position.
International Monetary Fund
This paper is one in a series of follow-up papers on The Fund’s Mandate—An Overview and The Fund’s Mandate—The Legal Framework discussed by the Executive Board on February 22, 2010. This paper proposes ideas to modernize the mandate and modalities of surveillance. It addresses how the Fund might increase the value of its surveillance by considering both the substance of surveillance (what it should do) and its modalities (how to do it). The main ideas focus on how the Fund can do more—and more sharply defined—multilateral surveillance, generate greater value and traction from bilateral surveillance, and integrate the two better. Options to buttress multilateral surveillance include doing more analysis of outward spillovers, holding multilateral consultations as needed on special topics to foster collaboration and collective action, and strengthening financial sector surveillance by mapping interconnectedness across borders and sectors and the transmission channels of macro-financial instability. The adoption of Multilateral Surveillance Decision could help support these ideas. Options to increase the value and traction of bilateral surveillance include promoting better cross-country understanding, with more thematic multi-country reports, producing more timely and topical reports, and increasing outreach and engagement with stakeholders.
Gösta Ljungman
This paper looks at the factors that have to be considered when designing an aggregate expenditure ceiling. It is argued that expenditure ceilings are effective in promoting fiscal discipline and sustainability, but that a number of trade-offs have to be made when setting up a fiscal framework that will survive in a politically charged environment. The paper illustrates the discussion with a case study of medium-term aggregate expenditure ceilings in three countries: Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes whether cyclical factors, including the large real exchange rate appreciation in recent years in New Zealand, can account for the rapidity of the recent rise in import penetration, or whether more lasting structural changes, such as the effects of globalization, may have played a role. The paper also looks at New Zealand’s vulnerabilities from two angles. It evaluates the external position of the country, and then assesses the health and soundness of various sectors of the economy by looking at their balance sheets and the key vulnerability indicators.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This book is intended to provide the user of debt statistics with a comparative description fo the statistics collected by the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the World Bank. It discusses how these statistics are gathered, why they take the form they do, and how they relate to each other.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The first consideration in formulating a definition of countries’ external debt is that it should respect the requirements of a wide range of users. Major users include: banks and export credit guarantee agencies for their work on risk analysis; officials involved in international financial co-operation, especially those concerned with the negotiation of debt agreements; and economic analysts in general. These and other potential users must find statistics derived from the definition relevant and realistic.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The core definition represents an agreed view of the essential elements in the definition of external debt. Especially in the case of systems focusing on a particular sector, it provides criteria for the inclusion or exclusion of various types of financial instrument. It also provides a yardstick facilitating comparison of the practices of individual organisations.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

While the establishment of the core definition of external debt and the improvement in the quality of published data represent substantial achievements, much remains to be done in refining concepts, achieving greater concordance among the reporting systems and improving the reliability of the data collected and published.